Medina was the location that Muhammad and his followers settled in after traveling to it in 622. (Kahn 2001). Other Arab tribes as well as Jews were already living there, so Muhammad made a series of agreements with them in order to maintain an organized, peaceful relationship, as well as lawful order. These formal agreements have come to be known as the Constitution of Medina; it involved the rights, duties and methods of solving disputes among members of various classes. (Al-Muhajabah, 2003). The agreements also gave the prophet Muhammad jurisdiction over all of the people living there. His actions, including his jurisdiction, were based on his interpretation of and strict adherence to the Qu'ran. (Kahn, 2001). "In simple terms, the first Islamic state established in Medina was based on a social contract, was constitutional in character and the ruler ruled with the explicit written consent of all the citizens of the state." (Kahn, 2001).
The constitution of Medina established a pluralistic state -- a community of communities. It promised equal security to all and all were equal in the eyes of the law. (Kahn, 2001). Each tribe had its own laws, and they all had to agree on them for them to be held as laws. "To the tribe as a whole belonged the power to determine the standards by which its members should live." (Coulson, 1994). The pluralism set forth by the community of Medina set the stage for the pluralism found of the separation of Islamic law into five distinct schools. The first school of law to be discussed is the Maliki school.
The school of Islamic law referred to as Maliki was founded by Anas ibn Malik. This is the school that was formerly the ancient school of Medina. Thus it continued to accentuate the practices that were encompassed by the Medinese community. While the three other schools or jurisprudence adhered to using the Qu'ran as their primary source for law formulation, the Maliki school was the only one to use the practice of the people of Medina as not only a source but often the primary source (rather than the Qu'ran). Malik felt that utilizing the practices of the people of Medina was a good source because both Muhammad and his companions lived their for most of their lives. Malik considered the people of Medina to be "living Sunnah." (Wikipedia 2008). Although some reliance on "Hadith (traditions concerning the Prophet's life and utterances)" was still evident, the Malikites preferred traditional opinions and analogical reasoning. (Encyclopedia Britannica 2008).
The Maliki school believed that their laws did not need to be based on the Qu'ran and could instead be based on Muhammad's companions, for he gave them a "distinction and knowledge" that God had given to him. There were no records of God's words save those in the knowledge shared by Muhammad. (Brockopp from Weiss 2002).
"The Great Shaykh theory makes explicit what is implied in these texts: that individuals, such as Imams and teachers, are invested with such religious authority that their words can generate law. Ascribing religious authority to great individuals quickly became endemic in Islamic culture great men and women, while no longer prophets, were still thought to embody certain ideals of truth and justice which emanated from the divine realm." (Brockopp from W
Law is central to Islamic thought. (Shamsy 2007). The five major schools of Islamic law during the Abbasid period of 758 to 1258 were the Maliki, Hanifi, Shafi'I, Hanbali and Jafari schools of thought. It is both fascinating and useful to explore the creation and development of these five, distinct schools of Islamic law.
Literally, the word ‘islam’ means submission to the Almighty God. The teachings and ideologies of the Prophet Muhammad are embedded in Islam. For the people who follow Islam, Quran is the Word of God. “It was revealed in the Arabic language as a sonoral revelation which the Prophet repeated to his companions.” Like the Bible in the Christian world, Quran is regarded as holy and divine in the Muslim world.
This is not always the process, but it is good to note that it is the most experienced. This study is going to consider five major phases of international development with businesses in focus and as such the organizations of the US are going to be put under spotlight.
Tax compilation may be prepared by the tax subject with or without the assistance of tax compilation application and web utilities. Tax compilation can also be achieved by a qualified expert such as a legal representative, proficient communal accountant or registered mediator, or by tax Compilation Company.
These laws guide the commercial transactions in Islamic countries. This paper presents, portfolio in Islamic commercial law on two short essays. The first essay covers the history and the development of Islamic commercial law that is inter-related with political will of the state by presenting one case study of South-East Asia region.
According to the report the Islamic law originates from the holy book of Islam, Quran, the sayings, practices, and teachings of the Prophet Mohammed, Sunna, and the interpretations of Prophet Mohammed teachings by Muslim legal academicians. The Islamic law relies solely on faith where Allah mandates all Muslims to obey the Sharia.
The divide between the two sects of Islam occurred at the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632 AD; since the spiritual leader had made no arrangements for his own succession, his followers were unsure what to do in his absence. The solution was twofold: while the majority of Muslims wanted to elect their leaders, a small minority decided that the best replacement for Muhammad would be from his own family.
The author claims that Indonesian people are yet to come out of the trauma they experienced during the Tsunami when the Shariah laws are being implemented in a manner which reminds us of the Stone Age. On the one hand we are talking about equality in the society, but on the other hand we have the example of women being prosecuted.
Hadith, in the Islamic religion, consist of the collected traditions, teachings, and stories of the prophet Mohammed, accepted as the source of Islamic doctrine and law. Hadith, in the Islamic religion, are considered second only to the Koran, which is believed to be the Almighty Allah's own words.
The implementation of the resource management requires skills in advising & guiding the teachers. For successfully handling resource management, funds & its sources has to be identified and allocated, including determination & tracking costs, acquiring funds, distributing and controlling funds, tracking costs and obligations, reimbursement procedures and cost capturing as well as establishing management control process.
26 pages (6500 words)Essay
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