This has been made possible through equation of the chariot to the body; here the body has been depicted as only as a carrier that will need so many other aspect to function well. The body is equated as independent, however, dependent to function, minds have been equated to the reins; in this passage, they depict the minds as the aspects that are on the control. Intellect has been equated to the captain or director of the chariot and the owner of the chariot have been equated to atman (self).
The idea behind the passage is to bring into the fore that atman is very independent of body, mind and intellect. That atman as the controller of the chariot, which is equated to the body though independent, is the owner of the body. The intuition is the mind the reins, the chariot-driver, the senses the horses, and the objects of the senses the paths. It goes ahead and explains that those with undisciplined minds would never reach their goal and end up being reincarnated. Those of disciplined mind will always reach their goals, and will not have to go through the rebirth cycle. In my opinion, this is not a realistic approach to reality, since there is nothing that can be compared to the final reality. There is no analogy in all the ideas that is comparable to what it is understood to be. The scope of these analogies is limited to point it out (Smith p50).
Buddhism arose in the 500 B.C in rebellion against Vedantic Hinduism of that time. It advocated for individual effort, explicit language and uncomplicated means. The question of Buddhism is about removing the arrow of suffering came in to context because of the message of the Buddha, which described his message as the Four Noble Truths making up the basic means Buddhism advocated (Smith p117). Life as suffering is one of the four means making up the four noble truths. It starts by explaining life as accompanied by inevitable pain (pain that we must endure as