Thereafter, Calvin’s works, writings and doctrines would become quite useful and influential in establishing consensus among various Reformation groups not only in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary and Germany but also across the expanse of Europe and other far off lands.
Born on 10 July 1509, John Calvin, a French cleric and doctor of law, was a key figure in the second generation of reformers. He not only published the theological tome, the Institutes of the Christian Religion, in 1536 but also played an influential role in the development of the system of Christian theology, which would later be renamed Calvinism.2 Calvin became a leading figure in the Reformed church in Geneva, which was the presumed headquarters of Reformed Christianity in the latter parts of the 16th century. Together with other elders, Calvin worked with pastors and elders to ensure that religious discipline reigned among the Genevan populace. An area for which Calvin’s theology is widely read and known are his doctrines of (double) predestination and the Sacrament.3 Although predestination was not the overriding idea in Calvins works, it later became a key issue, more so for most of his Reformation students andsuccessors.After Zwingli’s death on 11 October 1531, Calvin took over the mantle of spiritual leadership among the reformers.
The doctrine of theLord’s Supper was surrounded with divergent opinions, contentions, disputes and controversies from the medieval period up to modern times. The Eucharist is viewed differentlyby different cultures and people .4For instance, some people believe thatthe Eucharist is a grace through which sins are forgiven.In the Catholic tradition, the Council of Trent (1545-1563) asserts that, “by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the
These battles over the doctrine of the Eucharist have existed since the medieval period. However, the debates became more heated and controversial in the European Reformation of…
In order to analyze Mullins’s doctrine of original sin, the author will provide a summary of Mullin’s overall argument. The summary will be followed by a critique of the premises upon which the overall argument is built. The components of the doctrine are found within his systematic theology in various places.
He was instrumental in the proper development of Christian theology in France. He succeeded in giving new dimensions to Christian beliefs and traditions and established a new way of life called Calvinism. Even though, by birth he was a Roman Catholic, he challenged some of the patriarchal beliefs of Roman Catholic Church and formed his own church even amidst strong protests from fundamentalists.
This paper tells that several factors weaken Mullins's discussion of the doctrine of original sin. First, because components of his doctrine are scattered throughout Christian Religion, the overall flow of his argument is difficult to trace. In fact, one first encounter his claim that the sinful tendencies inherited from Adam are worthy of condemnation in the final section of his chapter on sin.
Indeed, the diplomatic essence of the Kennedy Doctrine initially played a crucial role in building up the very premises –“Flexible Response to the International Political Powers”, “Containment of Communism” and “Reversal of Soviet Progress in the West” – of the Kennedy Doctrine.
Similarly, an employee is also free to leave the job at any moment due to any cause or for no cause without any negative legal outcomes. The disclaimers of employment-at-will principle are essential employee guidelines in the US (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2013).
On the other hand, this doctrine gives an employee the right to terminate the relationship with the employer. Generally, an employee will be relieved of his or duties by the employer if he does not perform or if the employee is incapable to acclimatize him or herself to the position’s requirements (Mark et al., 1987).
Catholics take the sacraments to mark the basic stages of a Christian life and these are baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, marriage, reconciliation, holy orders and anointing the sick. However, one may opt to neglect some sacraments and focus on the relevant few. Furthermore, each sacrament is meant for a particular stage of the Christian life.
Therefore employers in the United States of America have a right over their employees and can dismiss or retain them at their own will without threats of legal action as experienced in the common law and statutes that protect employees
This treatise is a direct criticism from Luther to Pope Leo X, whom Luther refers to as the head of the sovereignty of the Antichrist since his authority was one based on secular power rather than upon the Christian faith.1 In promoting this