Judaism and Christianity are religions under practice within both ancients. This paper shall scrutinize both religions in ancient Egypt and Rome. The comparison Ritual and doctrine of Egypt would be imported into Judaism via Moses. How this would be achieved, provides a question, which is difficult to settle. Of the doctrine of gods, or the Egyptian theology proper, we have no hint in the Pentateuch. The religion has Jehovah rather than the three orders of deities. It has a rigorous proscription of idolatry instead of the pictures and images of gods. It has a deity behind all times and above all worlds, with no history, earthly life and adventures rather than Isis and Osiris. The Egyptians would be more prominent with the doctrine of life in the future, but there would be no such doctrine in Judaism. Moses does not provide an account of souls’ judgment after death. According to the Egyptians, there is no return to the body and future resurrection. Moses tells nothing of the multiform experiences and long journey of the next life. The severe monotheism of Judaism is different from the diminutive characterization of gods within the Egyptian pantheon. The characterization of Jehovah, with its stern retribution, its awful authority and impartial justice would ideally symbolize the Egyptian gods. The great influence of Judaism on the Egyptian practices encompasses a few elements. I. The Cherubim of Judaism would be similar to the Egyptian Sphinx. There were three types of Sphinxes in Egypt. First, the andro-sphinx had a lion’s body and the head of a human being. Second, criosphinx had a lion’s body and the head of a ram. Thirdly, hieraco-sphinx had a lion’s body, but the head of a hawk. The first sphinx symbolized strength and union of wisdom. It was to look after the tomb and the temple thus solemn sentinel. At the same time, Cherubim watched the paradise gates after Adam’s expulsion. Cherubim would be joined by use of parts of structures of man with others of the ox, lion and eagle. The Judaism temples had cherubim extend their wings over the ark. This presents a picture of two kneeling structures with their wings spread over the scarabaeus on the Egyptian tombs. II. The priests in Judaism would dress in white linen with symbolic jewels such as Thummim and Urim, which could be practiced in Egyptian theology. III. The Jews had temples for worship and priesthood of quasi-hereditary which influenced the Egyptian theology. The Egyptian Jews practiced rituals which were in accordance with the nature of mankind (Robinson 34). They adopted the rites of passage such as circumcision within the Egyptian practices. This rite would be connected with a mood of superiority. The circumcised would be distinguished from the rest by a senior religious position. The Day of Atonement commanded the Jews to offer a scapegoat, which would take away people’s sins. The high priest laid their hands on the goat’s head to confess the sins of the national. While laying the hands, he would say that the goat will bear upon him every inequity unto the inhabited land. Among Egyptians, a prayer would be repeated over the head of a victim offered. This would be to direct calamity of the Egyptian land over his head instead of the nation’s land. Within the ancient Rome, Judaism comprised of four different sects. I. Pharisees: they included those devoted towards the Jewish law. II. Sadducees: the aristocratic Jews who collaborated with the government of the Roman Empire. III. Zealots: the Militaristic group that would be openly hostile towards the state of Rome. They influenced the revolt of 66 AD that enhanced the
Christianity and Judaism are religions practiced across mainstream. They play key roles in nations. This paper will provide a comparison of the role of religion in ancient Rome Judaism and Christianity in relation to the ancient Egypt…
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This paper shall scrutinize both religions in ancient Egypt and Rome.
Ritual and doctrine of Egypt would be imported into Judaism via Moses. How this would be achieved, provides a question, which is difficult to settle. Of the doctrine of gods,