This compromised the respect accorded to papacy2. Since the schism tarnished the reputation of the papacy authority, it needed a resolution that would re-unite the people. Before the schism, the Catholic Church relied on a centralized Roman leadership. This paper will analyze the decrees that resulted from the emergence of the council of Constance. The issues that led to the schism in the Catholic Church included disputes concerning power and jurisdiction concerning matters3. The rise of English and French monarchies affected the papal authority. Things worsened after the election of the Urban the sixth. This happened in Rome and Urban proved to be extremely brutal forcing most of the other clergy to move back to Avignon where papacy had reigned before4. After their return to Avignon, they went ahead to elect a pope of their own bringing about a great controversy5. The Catholic Church devotees had two popes in power exercising control over the church.6 The division that emerged threatened to challenge the papacy powers. Different countries opted to support one of the two popes. Haec Sancta: Decree of the Council of Constance, 1415 Majority of the people opined that a council had the capacity to solve the controversy that was proving a threat to the unity of the church7. Although both popes portrayed reluctance to call upon the help of the council in solving the matter, a council came into place to propose solutions for the problem that was prevailing in the Catholic Church. The decree ‘haec Sancta’ declared by the council changed the entire picture of the competition that had resulted from different individuals claiming to have papal authority. The council of Constance was acting as one of the ecumenical councils that had existed in the past of the Catholic Church8. The council introduced the conciliar ideology that was to give rise to additional controversies in the future. The conciliar ideology was of the standing that the councils of the Catholic Church held a supreme position. This implied that no clergy was above the council. The pope had a responsibility of recognizing the authority of the council and obeying it. Therefore, the council of Constance made it clear that it held the exquisite authority to resolve the schism that the church was facing9. In accordance, the council disregarded the authority of the competing popes that had resulted from the schism. The council held the reasoning that electing a different individual altogether would restore the unity that had once existed in the church. In addition, the council sought to restore the centrality of power that had existed in papacy. In the decree, the council made it clear that the constitution of t he council was part of the Holy Spirit’s doing. In addition, the council claimed that it had power directed to them from Christ himself. The council then expressed its expectation for every individual regardless of state and dignity to accept the solution it had designed to resolve the schism that prevailed. In addition, the council instituted a second decree concerning the future activities of the council. From 1415 to 1417, the council held sessions that led to critical decisions. The council that was headed by Sigismund as the emperor10. It exercised supremacy in all its decisions, expecting nobody to raise the question of discontent11. The council appointed a new pope, Martin the fifth, restoring the papal authority to Rome12. Council of Constance: Frequens, 1417
Name Institution Course Instructor Date Church Reformation in the 16th and 17th Century Background information In 1054, a great schism occurred between the eastern and western Christian churches. The schism resulted from regional, theological, linguistic, and political differences that had emerged…
Despite being centuries apart, both were examples of groundbreaking changes not only in religion but in politics and culture. The groups in power treated the new religious groups somewhat differently in each case. During the time of the Roman Empire, Christianity was generally seen as dangerous and unacceptable.
Freedom was not an easily granted bouquet in the Northern America in the 17th century. People were not allowed to exercise their freedom at their will in any of the aspects, such as religious freedom, political freedom, national freedom, etc. There had been lot of versions and degrees of classification even with the freedom too.
Mostly the efforts of the reformers who objected to the doctrines and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church led to the creation of the Protestant churches. In 1520, the Reformation spread in Italy and however collapsed in the beginning of the 17th century.
Most of the artists were elites and scholars from Europe. Some of the known artists in the era are Leonardo Da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius (Rifkin 20). They used paintings and other artistic works to come up with an overview of the human anatomy. They studies depended on dissections and surgery that was carried out on dead people and animals.
Since the mid nineteenth century most thoughtful Christians have rejected such sentiments. Archbishop George Carey, in his otherwise very conservative Canterbury Letters, candidly denies that neither God nor the devil received any payback and describes any such thing as immoral, and out of character with what we know of God.24.
The will determines the act of faith freely because its moral dispositions move it to obey God, whilst the non-cogency of the motives of credibility allows it to withhold its consent and leaves room for doubt and even denial. St. Thomas defines heresy: "a species of infidelity in men who, having professed the faith of Christ, corrupt its dogmas"(Wilhelm).
Nonetheless, as shown by Joan Thirsk (2007), English people in the sixteenth century were aware of a broad array of foods and flavourings and had firm views about the quality and taste of what they consumed.
The domestic realm of
The protestant reformation and catholic counter-reformation were the main causes of the religious upheaval of the 16th century. This is because the Church of Rome was common in Europe; hence, influencing socio-political and economic activities of other countries. This made both the church and the clergy to become corrupt.
ars when the Counter Reformation was introduced, it did not go beyond the aristocratic, educated and the bourgeois and it took decades to reach the ordinary working class Catholic people, and for them to get acculturated and identify themselves with it. This indicated a huge
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