Bauer, one of the most remarkable scholars of early Christianity, refutes the view that Jewish tendency in the formation of Christian canon was limited to the activities of Ebionites. He turns attention to the Syrian Jewish communities and the writings like Kerigmata Petrou and Didascalia that interpret Jesus as a “true prophet” and rely on the Peter’s Gospel while dismissing Paul’s views2. Jewish writings in general tended to favor Matthew and disregard Paul, as Paul was one of the most active proponents on the independence of Christian doctrine from the Old Testament code of conduct (the diet, circumcision, and a holiday once a week prescribed by it)3. Matthew’s Gospel openly demands the acceptance of Jewish Law; that is why it was largely supported by different early Jewish Christian movements4. The most influential of the latter were Ebionites (one of the possible etymological explanations of this name is its connection with the ideal of humble, poor living), the supporters of the “adoptionist” doctrine: to them, Jesus was a human being “adopted” by God, an ideal sacrifice after which other sacrificial rituals were not needed any more5. From this followed that Ebionites excluded the first chapters of Gospels that told the story of Christ’s birth to Virgin and that they did not consume meat6. Their doctrine in oral form was based on Matthew’s Gospel in Aramaic; later, the Gospel of Ebionites in Greek appeared for the generation unfamiliar with Aramaic7. The first attempt of the canonization of writing about Christ was actually made by a heretic who opposed the Jewish doctrine, the one named Marcion. His rationale was to challenge the view of God in the Old Testament and to comment the New Testament as the rejection of the older doctrine, “a Gospel of Love to the exclusion of Law”8. Like many Orthodox theologians of the time, he accepted the Gospel according to Luke and the epistles by Paul with slight changes and modifications by Marcion himself; some of his changes remained in the later Pauline and Lukan texts9. The first time Marcion declared his ideas was 144 CE, on the Christian Congregation in Rome10. Marcion rejected the entire Old Testament and the epistles of all apostles but Paul; he saw Jesus Christ as the son of Supreme God of love and grace, not punishment and justice, and claimed that this son only looked like a human being, so that the first chapters of Luke were viewed as misleading about His coming to the human world (not embodiment)11. He also deleted some parts of the text of the Gospel and epistles (like Gal.iii. i6 – iv.6 and 2 Thess. i. 6-8) on the ground that they supported the older Jewish tradition of Law12. Marcion produced his own polemic text and, as some of the Christian historians have proved, the introductory paragraphs to some of the epistles in Vulgata13. Marcion’s vision was very attractive because of the emphasis on mercy; it was very popular among Gentiles who were not native Jews14. Ehrman speculates about the possible prospects of Christianity influenced by either Marcionism
THE FOUNDATION OF ORTHODOXY AND THE CANON Religion and Theology November 12, 2012 Introduction This paper deals with the early stage of development of the Christian canon, from the beginning of the 2nd century and to 325 CE. The diversity of early Christian writings is taken into account, and the relation between heretical movements and the earliest attempts of defining the prescribed readings about Christ and apostles is described…
He pioneered the storytelling style emphasizing upon the scientific developments occurring during his era and solving the mysterious situations using detective techniques due to which he has been regarded as father of detective fiction in the American literature.
Student name: Professor Name: Course name: Date: William Ernest Henley's exclusion from the Literary Canon William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) is one of the distinguished poets and critics of later part of nineteenth century, who has left indelible imprints of his literary talent on English Literature through his dexterous critical analysis and wonderful creative writing.
However, in as much as the Bible easily guides the believers towards the path to righteousness, the Bible itself had to go through a very difficult path towards acceptance. The Bible as we know it today went through a very long, difficult and protracted birthing process.
It also incorporates the use of computer games, puzzles and other forms of simulations that widens the scope of the learner in knowledge synthesis and logical argument. Similarly, technology when applied in online studies accords the students an opportunity to make external ventures for knowledge and idea acquisition (Nielsen, 2007).
WWF ad. WWF ad Violence is rampant in the community today. The use of physical force is employed in entertainment, sports, and advertisement. Violence has become a reality for people in their everyday existence. Violence is exhibited in schools, neighborhoods, advertisements, video games, and work places.
The organization is considered as one of the leading non-profit organizations around the globe. Make a Wish Foundation generally receives fund from corporations, organizations and individual donors. 75% of the total revenue is allotted by the organizations to its several program services.
With assets of $31 billion, the foundation focuses on preventing and curing diseases in developing countries by improving healthcare (Mohammadi, 150). From the organizational perspective, the Gates Foundation operates within its three main programs: the US program of secondary and post-secondary education, global development program with the specific emphasis on hunger and poverty, including financing for the poor and small farmers, and global health program.