The mortal occupation by the Prophet was followed by Abu Bakr who was the first of the four caliphs accepted by Sunni Muslims as the vastly guided caliphs (al-khulafa al-rashidun). Abu Bakr was regarded as a man of great sanctity and piety who ruled religiously during his political reign in two years despite intermittent blunders and biased verdicts. Abu Bakr’s reign was marred with strong forces of Arab tribalism group that threatened to break up the political unity created by the Prophet. However, Abu Bakr was incredibly successful in suppressing the tribal waves and preserved the unity of the newly founded political entity in Medina. The second caliph, Umar who was considered by the Sunnis as the most successful caliph reigned between 13/634 and 23/644 with a great record of preserving the unity of Islamic state and spreading it to other states. Umar , who remarkably lived a life of simplicity and austerity, successfully captured Jerusalem whilst showing immense respect to the houses of worship of the Jews and Christians. He further made history in spreading Islam in various countries such as Persia Syria, and North America. Umar was later succeeded by Uthman who was chosen through consensus of the community elders from 23/644 to 35/656 ensured wealth influx in Medina and the rest of Arab territory. Uthman’s administration was flawed nepotism claims which ws evident when he appointed his relative Muawiyah governor of Syria. In his reign, Uthman caused uprising against himself, which eventually led to his death. Muawiyah later moved against Uthman’s successor thus precipitating the division of the body politic that continued to date. Ali did not rule for a long period because of civil strife and wars on various borders that were led by his Shiah followers against Quraysh and his companions Talha and Zubayr. Ali afterward moved capital of Islam to Kufa in Iraq where he had many followers and confronted Syrians who did not like him. Although Ali was successful in this Siffin battle, the Syrians came with Qurans in their hands pleading for arbitration, which was easily accepted by Ali. The movement of Islamic capital to Kufa led to permanent departure of political and cultural centre from Arabia though the religious centre continued to remain in Hejaz. Umayyads, after Ali’s death, ruled from central Asia to Spain and France for a long time but were confronted by efforts to restore power of aristocracy of Mecca and Bedouin rebellion against central authority and Shiite dissent. Abd al-Malik later restored peace and was preferred by both sides. Non-Arabs who believed that Umayyad were Arabs brought a fierce resistance. The Persian general led by Banu Abbas captured Damascus with the help of Persian supporters. However, the Muslim Spanish was established by one of the Umayyad thus maintaining the golden age of Muslim rule in Spain. Abbasids rule later marked the classical Islamic civilization by preserving the Islamic empire, unity, Islamizing many institutions, and maintained caliphs. During Abbasids reign, Baghdad became the greatest Islamic cultural centre. Renowned Abbasid caliphs’ Harun al-Rashid and al-Ma’mun were the greatest patrons of arts and sciences. At this period, Islamic beliefs and knowledge started to grow such as codification of Shari’
Date Islamic Faith and World Civilization Islamic religion and society has significantly contributed to the world civilization and global transformation. The Islamic society is believed to have begun strongly from the period when the Prophet came to the world and this marks establishment of Medina until his death…
The culture of Islam reveres the artistic and adept exercise of language, particularly the expressive, effectual use of verses. As an outcome, lyrical language usually surfaces in commonplace sites in Islamic societies, far more than it appears in Western countries.
This paper will articulate on the impact of globalization in the Islamic world. Introduction Globalization is the expansion in scope and connectivity of production, communication and technology across all regions of the world. It involves interweaving of cultural, socio-political, and economic activities of all countries in the world in a bid to create ‘ a free market for goods and services’, though most third world countries, a significant portion of them being Muslims would interpret it as exploitation and colonization by the stronger economies.
Muhammad married Khadijah, who was a renowned trader of that time and Muhammad served as her merchant for a long time. Muhammad travelled a lot as a merchant. He finally retired as he reached his 40s. Then he began to meditate in a cave which was located on Mount Hira outside the city of Mecca.
The religion and culture of Islam has spread across the globe and its influence is evident all over especially after the era of civilization. This paper intends to study in details the historical background of Islam since its birth to the modern day ideologies that holds it.
Inland, the only possible location for development of any sort of state was in the impoverished and remote region dominated by Mecca and the Quraysh clan, where ancient pilgrimage centers protected markets in perfume, leather, and other trade goods.
Early Islamic history is replete with detailed depictions of Muslim leadership during the nascent phase of the religion, when enlightened leadership was crucial to fostering Islamic growth. Most early Muslim works, even
It is reasonable to think that knowledge of Islamic culture is imperfect without an understanding of the abundant array of symbols of Islam. Calligraphy and geometric shapes extracted from the holy texts of Islam have become a foundation of Islamic art. Surprisingly, Arabic writing provided itself for integration into material art.
ety such as leadership, religion and peace, however, the impression of most of the Islamic artwork took a dynamic twist during the nineteenth century when it advocated for decolonization and addresses issues of violence that marred the Islamic territory. Understanding the
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