The Islamic feminist movement has begun to adapt certain Western thought into their efforts to become involved in the global trend towards a more progressive attitude in terms of the rights of women. In fact, the feminist movement in Islam can be seen as the third wave of feminism that is striving to fight against cultural inequalities inherent in some of the more traditional Muslim doctrines (Badran, 1986). This is a battle of cultures, pitting modern thought against the need to maintain ties to a strong faith that has been the cornerstone of much of the world for multiple centuries. To be sure, there are differences of opinion when considering the Islamic feminist movement and how much attention it should even garner. Some would argue that such reform efforts have no place in a discussion surrounding religious faith, while others would contend that religion and modernity can still go hand in hand (Gardner, 2006). This paper will deal with the current trend of Islamic feminism in an effort to bridge these differences of opinion and to move this dominant world religion towards a culture that is more accommodating of individual differences, while still honouring age-old traditions of religious, moral, and social values. The Emergence of Islamic Feminism The United Nations and the Plight of Women: 1975-1985 In the mid 1970s, the United Nations (UN) began a decade long initiative to focus on the plight of women globally. Women from around the globe attended a focused UN summit meeting that was designed to springboard a new attention to feminism worldwide. The idea behind the summit actually began with the general assembly meeting previously held in Mexico. It was there that delegates expressed concerns about the treatment of women worldwide (Gardner, 2006). The fact is that cultural and religious differences likely prohibit a universal feminist movement where all women are subject to the same treatment and the goal of true equality is met. With that being said, delegates to the United Nations increasingly began to feel that there should be a sort of universal declaration of feminist rights that would transcend culture and religion (Gardner, 2006). Out of this was born the idea of the Decade for Women. That General Assembly was reportedly that first major meeting ever held by the United Nations that made women’s rights a primary area of focus (Fraser, 1987). In essence, the General Assembly saw fit to create a declaration that drew from recent Human Rights initiatives, namely that women across the globe should have certain rights, regardless of their religious or cultural background. Subsequently, many left the meeting with a renewed passion for establishing and promoting certain responsibilities that should be shared amongst the countries of the world in terms of equalizing gender relationships in not only the workplace, but the general community as well (Moore and Pubantz, 2008). The idea was to make the feminist movement a focus of future initiatives for the next decade, both at the national and international level. Particular attention would be paid to countries that possessed a less than stellar record in the area of women’s rights. The declaration set forth the notion that both males and females should be viewed as
Islamic Feminism Introduction The relationship between Islam and feminism has understandably been a rocky one, and one that has radically changed over the years. At its most fundamental root, Islamic feminism refers to the movement relating the social roles of urban and rural society within the context of maintaining the traditional and historical beliefs of Islam (Moghadam, 2006)…
Vogler (2007:21) attributes the lack of implementation of sustainable development to the high costs. However, it is important to look into the origin and the evolution of the phrase sustainable development to enhance understanding of its future trend in various human activities.
The implication of the Islamic conservativeness is likely to be greater on the increasing developments in science and technology. The Islamic empires of the 17th century were characterized by rigidity to the change of techniques and equipment in their military and commercial sectors and thus they began to decline.
Internationalised business enterprises benefit from sharing of technology and enjoying the economies of large scale. The rise in globalisation is a product of the emergence and spread of multinational firms, formation of trade blocs and increase in the amount of trade.
The renaissance was a new era that replaced the old Middle Ages way of thinking through enthusiasm for classical literature, learning, and art, thus, as an intellectual movement, renaissance takes such a paramount place in history. The renaissance was a period during which secular inquiry and self-reliant spirit, aspects of the classical antiquity, were pervasive, thus, people began to think, feel, and think, or reflect upon life, as did the men of ancient Greece and Rome.
He was also a leader of the labour party. Because of his charisma, he was able to get the most votes that the party ever had since its establishment. He emerged victoriously in general elections held in 1997 with 418 seats. When he received the leadership position, he was against the traditional perception of socialism.
The economic growth of a country can be described as the long term increase in the ability of the country to supply better economic goods, with more choices to its people. The question now arises that how does this capacity in
ncurs with this view point by stating that a TNC should be able to distribute its products and services to many countries under the same goals and strategies. There are several reasons as to why a company chooses to internationalize product and service production and delivery.
on against interest (riba), risk sharing2 and asset-backed credit.3 An additional feature of Islamic banking is that all products and services are required to be Sharia compliant.4 In general Islamic banks operate with a higher level of discipline and under a tighter
In most African societies, women were not educated but seen as a part of the wealth especially to their husbands. Women were equalized to other forms of possessions such as cattle. In some of the communities, women were not legally allowed to vote or own any