Cell Components

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A plant consists of many thousands of cells that are used as building blocks (Bowes, 1996). However, as with a house, different types of building blocks are used in different places. Groups of similar cells form a tissue (Bowes, 1996). Cell in a plant, which, like all cells, has a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and a nucleus, but which differs from an animal cell by having a cell wall outside the cell surface membrane and a large vacuole.


In many ways, plant cells are similar to other eukaryotic cells. They have (usually just) one nucleus, organelles, a plasma membrane, and (almost all of them) share connections to adjacent cells. Cell walls and chloroplasts are the major plant cell distinctive features (Bowes, 1996).
Protein synthesis occurs at tiny organelles called ribosomes. Ribosomes are composed of a large subunit and a small subunit. Ribosomes can be found alone in the cytoplasm, in groups called polyribosomes, or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (Bowes, 1996).
The cytoplasm is a jellylike substance. It contains the nucleus and other cell structures (organelles). The cytoplasm contains enzymes, and most of the chemical reactions take place there. Cytoplasm operates as a "molecular soup" that binds together all of the cell's organelles, and separates the organelles within the cell. Cytoplasm is believed to be the origin of cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton supports movement of the cell as well as its anatomy through the cytoplasmic streaming. This occurs when the cytoskeleton moves to press the cell membrane it is then when the cytoplasm moves and occupies the empty space (Francis, 1996).
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