(McMaster 2005, n/p)
The factors that have influenced the development of the international trade of goods and services, international investment and migration flows, and consequently blurring the political and geographic boundaries, are numerous. It is this way because the world environment itself is an extremely complex and interrelated system. Any change in one integral part of the system leads to the change in the related parts.
Thus, the economic implications of the globalisation process and its psychological effect have altered the modern conceptions of what a city is and provoked discussion on issues of urbanism and antiurbanism.
The notion of the strict separation of the urban and the rural, embodied in such iconic images as the walled city of the Middle Ages, the fortified city of the seventeenth century, the Puritan stockade staring out into the primeval forest, even the smokestacks of the industrial city viewed from the refuge of its hills, has given way to urban conglomerations that can be mapped only by satellite, a landscape in which nature is preserved only by culture. The identification of city life with civilization itself, growing out of both etymology and a Whig sense of progress as defined by urban commerce, has been called into question (Ganim 2002, p.365)
The major economic drivin...
It has been in place for a long time. It has forced the companies to internationalize probably since the first wave of inter-national commerce has developed and continues to do so now. Maximization of output, profits or minimization of costs are not what makes the few last decades unique. However, the role of the targeting effective allocation is really significant and it cannot be omitted while analyzing the driving forces of globalisation.
The next stage in optimization of the resources allocation is replacing indirect or direct export to the country with direct investment into the local production. McRae sees this process of replacing exports with local production as absolutely crucial, because it implies that goods will either be made close to their markets, or where costs are lowest. They will not necessarily be made where the company happens to have its headquarters, or its origins. The choice of where to produce will depend on a number of things. Where there is a fear of protectionism, as with cars, there will be a tendency to produce locally as a way of fending off such pressures. Where labour costs make up a large proportion of the total costs, there will be a tendency to shift production to countries where wages are low. Anyone looking around the world can see this process taking place. (McRae 1996, p.151)
Shift in significance of various types of production and the special location of production site leads to the utilization of new productive spaces, and the negligence of earlier used procedures and activities, no more effective in the contemporary global marketplace. While the term globalisation seeks to explain a complex