5000 years ago) and it is a requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.
The basic principles of surveying have changed little over the ages, but the tools used by surveyors have evolved tremendously. Engineering, especially civil engineering, depends heavily on surveyors. Whenever there are roads, dams, retaining walls, bridges or residential areas to be built, surveyors are involved. They determine the boundaries of private property and the boundaries of various lines of political divisions. They also provide advice and data for geographical information systems (GIS), computer databases that contain data on land features and boundaries.
Surveyors must have a thorough knowledge of algebra, basic calculus, geometry, and trigonometry. They must also know the laws that deal with surveys, property, and contracts. In addition, they must be able to use delicate instruments with accuracy and precision. On the subject of accuracy, a surveyor is typically held to an accuracy standard of twelve-one thousandths (.012) (12/1000) of an inch over a length of one hundred (100) feet. This means, for perspective purposes, that a professional land surveyor can be expected to complete a survey of a one hundered (100) foot circle and upon returning to the point of beginning not deviate from his or her course no more than the width of a human finger-nail.
In most states of the U.S., surveying is recognized as a distinct profession apart from engineering. Licensing requirements vary by state, however these requirements generally all have a component of education, experience and examinations. In the past, experience gained through an apprenticeship, together with passing a series of state-administered examinations, was required to attain licensure.
Nowadays, many states require a Bachelor of Science in Surveying, or a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering with additional coursework in surveying, in addition to experience and examination requirements. Typically the process for registration follows two phases. First, upon graduation, the candidate may be eligible to sit for the Fundamentals of Land Surveying exam, to be certified upon passing and meeting all other requirements as a Surveyor In Training (SIT)..
The Role of Survey Engineering in the Future
Since the nation's well being in coming years will be more tied to global markets and developments than in the past, it is appropriate for the survey engineers to become more active at international and global levels as well. By playing a strong role in promoting, facilitating, and conducting international and global studies to develop critical science information, survey engineers lends support to national security as well as foreign policy and private sector interests as the following examples illustrate:
The larger world population of the future will be concentrated in developing countries. Many of these people will be living in low-latitude coastal regions where urban and economic growth is most intense and where the incidence of severe natural disasters- earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and hurricanes-is more common. Moreover, the interconnectedness that is