Calculated Versus Observed Underwater Sound Speed

College
Essay
Science
Pages 6 (1506 words)
Download 0
Sound velocity or speed is very important to anyone using sonar equipment in areas where the salinity level, as well as other factors, changes. Sound is the most preferred energy to be used by underwater warfare, communications and navigation because its range of transmission is greater in comparison to other forms of energy, such as light or radio waves.

Introduction


The speed of sound in air is approximately figured out by the formula . . . speed of sound (m/s) = 331.5 + 0.60 T(C). The speed or velocity, at which sound travels through water was first researched by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687 when he found that measurements of sound in fluids relied only on the physical properties of the fluid, such as elasticity and density (Funk & Wagnalls). The speed of sound in water is about four times greater than that in air. Although this seems to contradict the physical law that the denser the gas, the slower the speed of sound, the sound speed is actually determined more by the elasticity of the medium (Urick, 1983).
In 1822, Daniel Colloden used an underwater bell in an attempt to calculate the speed of sound underwater in Lake Geneva, Switzerland. His attempts resulted in figures remarkably close to today's accepted values (Acoustics . . . 2006). But sound speed cannot be discussed without mention of Jaque Sturm, French mathematician, who made the first accurate measurements of sound velocity in water in 1826. World War I created a great necessity to study the propagation of sound under water, with more progress in World War II and increased understanding from current research (Funk & Wagnalls). ...
Download paper
Not exactly what you need?

Related papers

Ground Reaction Force
The discussion includes the explanation of the general pattern of the Fz- and Fy- time traces an dthe change in magnitude of the Ground Reaction Force (GRF) variables between each running speed.…
Calculated Versus Observed Underwater Sound Speed
The speed of sound in air is approximately figured out by the formula . . . speed of sound (m/s) = 331.5 + 0.60 T(C). The speed or velocity, at which sound travels through water was first researched by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687 when he found that measurements of sound in fluids relied only on the physical properties of the fluid, such as elasticity and density (Funk & Wagnalls). The speed of sound…
Media Coverage of Climate Change
The mention of virtue is ridiculed, and even the word itself has fallen out of favor" (1928).…
Incidence of Mayflies in Riffles and Pools
The nymphs prefer high dissolved oxygen level environments.…
Isaac Newton
In 1679, Newton started to work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject. He published his results in De Motu Corporum (1684). This contained the beginnings of the laws of motion that would inform the Principia.…
Carbon Dioxide Emission
The average World Carbon Dioxide Emissions were 4.53 metric tones/capita in 2005. United States of America ranked first then with average emissions of 19.54 metric tones/capita followed by Canada, Russia and UK. Developing countries like India and China lagged at the tail end then.…
Sonar Performances
This project entails the planning and execution of an oceanographic survey to determine the differences in sound velocity variables over the neap and spring tide cycles in the Dart and Tamar estuaries, and their impact on sonar-related performances. This study is largely based on research provided by Desiree Batton in conjunction with the Hydrographic Society, The Dart Observatory at the Britannia…