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Scientific Revolution - Essay Example

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Scientific Revolution

The most of the ancient Greek philosophers and scientists were depicted by Raphael in his famous School of Athens: they are pictured together and debating on different sciences. The picture expresses the power and greatness of ancient Greek science and the admiration for the famous antique scientists who originated the initial scientific knowledge on the Earth. Thales was the first Greek scientist and philosopher who tried to explain the nature of our world by scientific methods. His works on geometry and astronomy gave the origin of our knowledge on the Earth and its place in the Universe. Anaximander, as Thales follower, supposed the Earth to be a cylindrical form which is in the centre of the Universe. It is surrounded by air and the arch of haven with stars on it as the holes of the arch. Anaximenes added this notion by supposing that stars are fixed to the haven arch which is rotating around the Earth. Pythagoras who lived in the 6th century B.C. supposed another model of the Earth. He asserted that our planet has a spherical form and surrounded by fixed stars. He and his followers believed in cosmos as well-organized substance. Pythagoras ideas influenced the notions on the Earth for some centuries. Socrates who lived in the 5th century B.C. contributed a lot in the development of philosophy by his method of inquiry which is based on the dialogue. He gave the first significant notions on Good and Justice which influenced the ancient and medieval notions of our society. Heraclites supposed that the spherical Earth is rotating around its axis, and that Mercury and Venus are rotating around the Sun while the Sun and other planets are rotating around the Earth. Meanwhile Aristarchus of Samos introduced the heliocentric model of the Universe. He placed the Sun in the centre of the Solar system and assumed that the planets including the Earth are rotating around the Sun. But this model wasn't highly appreciated by his contemporaries as it didn't correspondent with the empirical experience of ancient Greeks. Plato asserted that the Earth is an ideal sphere and stars are eternal and divine. He supposed sphere to be an ideal form and assumed that geometrical model of sphere can explain the place of the Earth in the Universe. Aristotle who lived in the 4th century B.C. supposed that everything consists of the mixture of four elements: fire, air, water and earth while stars consist of the fourth element. He placed the Earth to the centre of the Universe and assumed that the planets are rotating around it by ideal spherical orbits. Strabo, who lived in the 1st century B.C., was a famous ancient historian and geographer. He is famous for his Geographika, the book which described history, peoples and places of the world of that time. It was a real encyclopedia of the ancient world unless there were some flaws in it. Nevertheless Geographika influenced the historical and geographical knowledge of that time very much. Claudius Ptolemy, the last well-known great astronomer and scientist who lived in A.D. the 2nd century, also placed the Earth to the centre of the Universe. He also assumed that stars are fixed on the sphere which is 10000 Earth diameters from the centre. The sphere is rotating around the Earth once in 24 hours. This model of the Earth influenced the notions about the Earth for some centuries including the medieval period. The contribution of the ancient scientists to the science of the Earth is ...Show more


Geography is a science which describes the surface of the Earth. This word derives from two Greek words: Gaea, which means "Earth", and graphein, which means "to describe" and "to write". Geography development is the development of human knowledge about our planet describing…
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