Influenza Pandemic

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A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic takes place when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity, and for which there is no vaccine. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new subtype emerges that has not formerly circulated in humans.


The research explained how the next influenza pandemic may arise and its possible outcome. This paper also discussed the history of Influenza happened in the year 1918, 1957, and 1968. Moreover this research used pictures and tables for effective illustrations of significant information.
An influenza pandemic is a universal outbreak of flu disease that takes place when a new type of influenza virus appears that people have not been exposed to before (Kilbourne ED. 1975). According to Kilbourne ED. (1975) that pandemic flu is a worldwide outbreak of disease that takes place as soon as a new influenza virus appears in humans, causes serious illness and then spreads effortlessly from person to person worldwide.
There are three types of influenza. Influenza A, B and C viruses are known to cause disease in humans. While influenza B and C viruses are strictly human pathogens, influenza Type A viruses are readily isolated from avian species, pigs and other animals. Influenza Type A viruses are divided into subtypes based on differences in the surface glycoprotein antigens, hem agglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 14 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes. All of these subtypes have been isolated in birds but only 3 different HA and two different NA subtypes have been isolated in humans (See table bellow)
The influenza viruses are only one of its kinds amongst the respiratory viruses in t ...
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