Thirty-seven members were assigned to the imagery (experimental condition) and thirty-eight participants were assigned to the repetition condition (control). Data from each section were combined in the analysis. A set of 80 common, concrete nouns were provided in an appendix of Neath's text Human Memory. With the use of a random numbers table, 20 random pairs were created. Each subject participated in just one condition and the responses were divided into two groups: 1) word pairs 1-10; 2) word pairs 11-20. These conditions enabled the distinction of what factors have an effect on the performance of the participants, the subjects themselves or the order of the stimuli. Group data was analyzed T test. Result did not show any significant result (p> 0.05) deviated from the null hypothesis of equal contribution at the level of significant 0.05 for the overall effect of order (1-10 vs. 11-20). However, the effect of order showed significance for the imagery rehearsal condition. The total average of right answers by the participants showed a greater improvement for those in the imagery rehearsal condition. In conclusion imagery rehearsal condition enhances performance in paired associates learning.
Paired-associate learning was "invented by Mary Whiton Calkins in 1894 and involves the pairing of two items (usually words)-a stimulus and a response" ("Paired-associate learning", n.d.). PAL is aided by mnemonic strategies (Kintsch, 1970 as cited in Chang, H. T., Klorman, R., Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., Marchione, K. E., Holahan, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., Brumaghim, J. T., Shaywitz, B. A., 1999). 'Encoding strategies employed in this and additional memory tasks include rehearsal, that is, simple repetition of the paired associations; organization by theoretical or semantic categories; elaboration, that is, generation of arbitrary relations between items'(Schneider & Bjorklund, 1998 as cited in Chang, H. T., et al.); or visualization, that is, formation of visual images (imagery) of something in mind ("Visualize", 2005).
For decades, it has been an issue if what can help in enhancing the performance of an in paired-associate learning. For example, Rohwer (1966 as cited in Bower G. H. & Winzenz, D., 1970) stated that 'reading a declarative sentence linking the word pair as subject and object nouns generated better summon up than simply studying the pair without a sentence context'. Additionally, Bobrow & Bower (1969 as cited in Bower G. H. & Winzenz, D., 1970) established that 'college students kept in mind a noun pair much better if they generated their individual sentence linking the word pair rather than just learning the pair in a pre - constructed sentence'. There seems to be a gradual 'improvement in recall going from habitual repetition to
It is often said that "visual memory is superior to verbal memory on recognition tasks" (Shepard, 1967; Standing, Conezio, & Harber, 1970 as cited in Jonides, Kahn, & Rozin, 1975). With this fact can we infer that visual imagery is a tool in doing a better work in paired-associate learning' This study will focus on the hypothesis that: Imagery rehearsal condition enhances performance in paired associates