This in vitro study is called transient transfection cell culture systems and has been used to establish sensitivity or cross resistance to analogues. Imperative in this activity is the acquisition of quantitative real time data and previous knowledge on the replication and pathogenesis of HIV or HBV. Any difference in expression of the transfected cell is identified and analyzed.
Another approach is to introduce derivatives from certain sources that can serve as potent inhibitor of in vitro HIV or HBV replication. For example, synthetic DNA molecules called antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) were administered to cells transiently and stably transfected with HBV protein encoding plasmids. The cells were observed for any HBV replication and pathogenesis for 48 hours. It was found that there ODN effectively inhibited viral protein expression and replication. ( Karayiannis, 2003)
Animal models have also been very useful in understanding the replication and pathogenesis of the virus mentioned. Many of the models are na've primates such as chimpanzees, rhesus macaques and Aotus monkeys. HBV or HIV carrier animals are administered with potential cures.