StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Swallowing - Essay Example

Not dowloaded yet

Extract of sample
Swallowing

It is anticipated that this review will contribute to the self-learning of the author, as well as extending on insights and understandings of dsyphagia within the literature at this present time.
The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It is very important in swallowing due to its afferent control of general sensation to the face, teeth, gum, muscles of mastication and the anterior two thirds of the tongue (Miller, 2006). Its efferent control is of the muscles for mastication. Innervating the tensor velar palatine, the trigeminal is partly responsible for the flattening and tensing of the soft palate. Innervations of the extrinsic laryngeal muscle results in the nerve's support for the upward and anterior movements of larynx.
The facial nerve's main function is its motor portion; although, its afferent portion is involved in taste sensation from the anterior two thirds of the tongue (Miller, 2006). It provides motor innervations to the sublingual and submaxillary salivary glands. More specifically, it is involved in swallowing by regulating the lip sphincter and the buccal muscles, which allows food to be held inside the mouth and also assists in pulling the larynx up and back.
The glossopharyngeal (GPN) is composed of the lingual branch of the GPN (GPN-li) and the GPN-ph. Its sensory portion transits inputs from the posterior third of the tongue, the velum and the pharynx, which includes the tonsils (Miller, 2006). The glossopharygeal nerve gathers sensation from the fauces, the palatine tonsil, upper pharynx, and the back third of the tongue. Sensory fibers carry taste information from the posterior one third of the tongue. Afferent input is received from receptors located in the larynx and these are carried primarily to the superior laryngeal nerve, also known as the cough center of the medulla. The motor portion communicates outputs to the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle and also innervates the stylopharyngeal muscle, which, together with the palatopharyngeus muscle (X nerve), elevates the palate. The stylopharyngeus muscle dilates the pharynx laterally and contributes to the elevation of pharynx and larynx.

Vagus (X)
The vagus nerve (X) is the most dominant cranial nerve during the swallowing process. The vagus nerve is the major efferent for the pharyngeal constrictors and is the major afferent for the middle and inferior portions of pharynx (Miller, 2006). It supplies also main efferent innervations to the palatal muscles. Branches of the vagus nerve attach to muscles of the larynx and pharynx. It is also known as the nucleus ambiguous, and it innervates branchial arch muscles of the pharynx and larynx as well as the muscles of the upper esophagus and uvula. Branches also extend to the, glossopalantine, levator veli palatine and the palatoglossus muscles making it primarily responsible for palatal functioning. One of the motor nuclei transmits motor output to the pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in this way can completely control the intrinsic musculature of the larynx. Moreover, taste buds on the root of the tongue and on the epiglottis contribute special visceral afferent fibers to the superior laryngeal branch. General visceral afferent fibers convey sensation from the lower pharynx, larynx, trachea, and esophagus.
Together with the ...Show more

Summary

This paper aims to review the cranial nerves involved in dysphagia and to clearly determine their individual contribution to the swallowing process. Firstly, the cranial nerves involved in swallowing will be identified and their functions will be delineated with regard to swallowing…
Author : sigurdmorar
Swallowing essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Swallowing"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Related Essays

The Global Pharmaceutical industry: swallowing a bitter pill case study
According to Ahlstrom and Bruton the effects of the forces analyzed in the Five-Forces Framework are differentiated in the pharmaceutical industry because of the following reason: the profits of this industry are likely to be continuously increased, a phenomenon which is not common in other industries.
11 pages (2750 words) Essay
The Global Pharmaceutical Industry: Swallowing a bitter pill' Case Study
Porter’s Five Forces that explain environmental factors affecting operations of business entities include threats of entrants, degree of rivalry amongst the existing firms, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, and closeness of substitute products.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Toxicological poisoning
Carbon monoxide is a chemical compound that is composed of carbon and oxygen. It is a poisonous gas that is usually emitted in the household through the cooking process that takes place in the kitchen or other burning process that takes place in the house.
1 pages (250 words) Essay
The Global Pharmaceutical Industry: Swallowing A Bitter Pill
The Global Pharmaceutical Industry: Swallowing A Bitter Pill Name: Institution: Innovativeness in high tech is of importance in the pharmaceutical industry in the sense that it facilitates Value creation in the industry. Innovativeness also contributes to maintenance of a company’s competitive advantage (Johnston, Whittington and Scholes, 2011, p.5).
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Structure Of The Larynx
The larynx's structure is comprised of the thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, arytenoid, cuneiform and corniculate cartilages. At the anterior part of the larynx is the thyroid cartilage and its bottom is attached to the ring-like cricoid cartilage.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Can Bedside Assessment Detect Aspiration
The aim of this essay is to evaluate if there are any bedside assessment techniques, which can detect aspiration, and are sufficiently specific and sensitive. The availability of such a technique can be cost effective and easily available, unlike the disadvantages of the traditional instrumental techniques.
8 pages (2000 words) Essay
Reflection Paper on Jainism
Jainism requires that human being should endeavor to use his wisdom in promoting the culture of peaceful coexistence with other creatures. A man in his sound mind
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Applying Standardized Terminologies in Practice
It is from such practices that nurses have developed certain standardized terminologies for different nursing situations. This essay describes a scenario
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Choking - airway blockage
Choking results to a horrifying condition known asphyxia. The condition is caused by severe deficient oxygen supply to the body that results to unconsciousness or even death. A 63 years old man in the United
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Summary
he results according to gender, age, leading symptoms, position of the primary tumor, and occurrence of malignancies as presented by the patients’ medical history. The result of the study showed that tumors of both the lung and breast mainly caused the disease. Unexplained
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Get a custom paper written
by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Rate this paper:
Thank you! Your comment has been sent and will be posted after moderation