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Proteins are usually synthesized on the ribosomes that are attached to endoplasmic reticulum and tend to enter the secretory pathway as part of the translocation process. Translocation across membranes in case of soluble proteins or insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane as in case of membrane anchored proteins would be the main processes through which synthesis would take place…
This also helps in identifying novel components for particular specific pathways and components common for all pathways. Mitochondrial proteins tend to be nuclear encoded and these proteins must be translocated to the compartments within the mitochondria (Copley, 1997; Berg 2002). The final localisation is determined with interaction of nascent polypeptides with inner and outer membrane translocation complexes.
Protein synthesis tends to occur in cytosols and in mitochondria, chloroplasts and the location of proteins and crossing of proteins across plasma membrane could be studied using the concept of protein translocation. This essay is based on the discussion of protein translocation and the mechanism involved in such translocation including the reasons why proteins seem to cross membranes and whether it is done as chains or after folding.
The translocation of proteins was first experimentally discovered by Blobel in 1970 and he discovered that proteins tend to have signal sequence or a short amino acid sequence and this functions as a code address for the target organelle. ...
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