The glaciers in Columbia are vanishing and there are hurricanes not only in Central America but even in southern Brazil. The result of these phenomena will have debilitating effects on fisheries, coral reefs, water availability and agriculture. It will also result in an imbalance as the fragile ecosystem will not be in position to tolerate the increasing carbon level in the atmosphere as also the degrading effects of deforestation (Climate change threatens Latin America and the Caribbean).
One may wish to turn the clock back and work on an agenda that may trigger the momentum to restore the ecological balance. The good news is that attempts are made in the direction of this restoration. The outcome of these attempts may take decades or even centuries to realize the desired effects. Nevertheless, the issue is survival of mankind with the rest of the plants and animals. Hence, every little contribution towards revival of the original environment has exponential effects in the improvement of the entire region.
The increase in the amount of carbon in the air poses dire problems. It will raise sea level by 15 to 95 cm by 2100 AD. Heavy rains, floods, drought, desertification could result in colossal unsettlement and disease such as malaria and cholera. Poor countries such as Cuba and Guatemala will be particularly affected as they will not have the means to sustain elongated period of disease and drought (Future Climate Change in Cuba and Guatemala).
The steps for restoration of the ecological balance are worked out by ensuring clean energy technology and sustainable land use and forestry. Promotion of clean energy technology in Latin America is taking place as joint ventures with multinational corporations. The change from fossil fuel to clean energy will ensure better atmosphere with less carbon in the air. Reduction of carbon emissions from factories and automobiles will mean cleaner atmosphere.
The solution towards cleaner energy is ensured through agencies like the Kyoto protocol, ecological footprints, global bio-capacity, sustainable development, etc.
The Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto protocol makes it mandatory for industrialized nations to cut down on the greenhouse gas (GHG). It is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Thirty seven industrialized countries and the European community have the responsibility of reducing GHG by 5% against 1990 levels over the five year period 2008-2012. The Kyoto protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and came into force on 16 February 2005. The countries meet their protocol target under three market-based mechanisms which are: Emissions trading also known as the carbon market, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and Joint Implementation (JI) (Kyoto