Drosophila melanogaster is a fruit fly, a small insect of the kind that gathers around spoiled fruit. It is also one of the generally important of organisms in studies, mainly in genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila has been used as a representative organism for research for almost a century, and today, several thousand scientists are effective on many different characteristics of the fruit fly.
Mutant flies, with fault in any of numerous thousand genes are presented, and the entire genome has lately been sequenced.
The drosophila egg is about mm long. It takes about one day after fertilisation for the embryo to grow and emerge into a worm-like larva. The larva eats and develops constantly, moulting one day, two days, and four days after hatching (first, second and third instars). After two days as a third instar larva, it moults one more time to form a motionless pupa. Over the next four days, the body is totally altered to give the adult winged form, which then hatches from the pupal case and is prolific within about 12 hours.
Drosophila is so admired; it would be nearly unfeasible to list the number of effects that are being done with it. Initially, it was mainly used in genetics, for example to learn that genes were associated to proteins and to learn the rules of genetic legacy. More lately, it is used mainly in developmental biology, stare to see how a multifaceted organism arises from a comparatively simple fertilised egg. ...