As mentioned earlier partially, the NCC and the NKCC2 cotransporters are renal-specific in action while the other five are more widely found and evident throughout the central nervous system (Delpire, E., 2000). The and solute carriers move through plasma membranes always accompanied by in equal proportions in a 1:1 stoichiometry (Gamba, G., 2005).
Functionally, these membrane proteins are active in transepithelial ion absorption and secretion, cell volume regulation and setting intracellular anions below or above their electrochemical potential equilibriums (Gamba, G., 2005), among other possible functions. The last activity, specially appertaining to KCC2, is of special interest to this study. The last decade has seen much advance in their study and most of the knowledge that is available on them has become so within this short period.
These family members are also extensively involved in the pharmacology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular and neuronal regions of mammalian anatomy. Loop diuretics and thiazide diuretics that are some of the most prescribed drugs in the world target some of the family members while genetic mutations that inactivate three specific members cause inherited diseases like Bartter's, Gitelman's and Anderman's (Gamba, G., 2005). It should be noted here that all the functional-structural characteristics of the above seven cotransporters have not been comprehensively discovered and described. This is amply evident from G. Gamba's extensive 2005 paper investigating comprehensively the hitherto unrevealed functional-structural characteristics of the seven. Thus, that deficiency lends purpose to the dissertation this paper is an introduction to again, specifically in relation to KCC2, the particular potassium-coupled chloride cotransporter this project is investigating.
True cultured cell lines derived of purely neuronal origin are of immense value to biochemical and molecular study of neurons and their diverse functional implications together with other neurotransmission elements like the KCC cotransporters in this instance. This is so because primary neuronal cells thrive indifferently in cultures with low reproducibility and often are found mixed with other types of cells not of interest to the particular research at hand (Wang and Oxford, 2000). There are some specific neuronal differentiated phenotype exhibiting cell lines available to the researcher such as the PC12 cells, the P19 cells and the MN9D cells, among others, but these are not purely derived of the CNS and