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Pages 12 (3012 words)
Seven electroneutral cation-coupled cotransporters have been found in the physiological systems of mammals to date (Delpire, E., 2000). These, together with two orphan members, belong to the SLC12 gene family (Gamba, G., 2005) and cloning of the cDNA encodes the different members.
As mentioned earlier partially, the NCC and the NKCC2 cotransporters are renal-specific in action while the other five are more widely found and evident throughout the central nervous system (Delpire, E., 2000). The and solute carriers move through plasma membranes always accompanied by in equal proportions in a 1:1 stoichiometry (Gamba, G., 2005).
Functionally, these membrane proteins are active in transepithelial ion absorption and secretion, cell volume regulation and setting intracellular anions below or above their electrochemical potential equilibriums (Gamba, G., 2005), among other possible functions. The last activity, specially appertaining to KCC2, is of special interest to this study. The last decade has seen much advance in their study and most of the knowledge that is available on them has become so within this short period.
These family members are also extensively involved in the pharmacology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular and neuronal regions of mammalian anatomy. Loop diuretics and thiazide diuretics that are some of the most prescribed drugs in the world target some of the family members while genetic mutations that inactivate three specific members cause inherited diseases like Bartter's, Gitelman's and Anderman's (Gamba, G., 2005). ...
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