Conceptual Model

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Science
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The respiratory system is composed mainly of the lungs, airways, diaphragm, windpipe, throat, mouth, and nasal passages. The portal of entry of air is in the nasal cavity. The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body…

Introduction

It protects the body against disease-causing organisms and toxic substances inhaled with air". (Encarta 2005)
Using several instruments and random sampling method for smokers, non-smokers and asthmatic person, the respondents are being measured with their adult lung volumes using a spirometer. The peak expiratory flow rate is also measures as well as the respondents vital capacity using a vitalograph.
The aim of this practical is to introduce the student to measuring human lung volumes, together with observing the control of respiration. Respiration refers to the overall gaseous exchange between the atmosphere, blood and body cells. In this context, respiration is taken to mean the movement of air into (inspiration) and out of (expiration) of the lungs. More accurately, inspiration and expiration is termed ventilation. An inspiration followed by expiration is called one respiration. The number of respirations per minute gives the respiratory rate (RR). A healthy adult averages a respiratory rate of between 12 to 18 respirations per minute. During this respiratory process, various amounts of air are exchanged between the lungs and the atmosphere. ...
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