StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Conceptual Model - Essay Example

Not dowloaded yet

Extract of sample
Conceptual Model

It protects the body against disease-causing organisms and toxic substances inhaled with air". (Encarta 2005)
Using several instruments and random sampling method for smokers, non-smokers and asthmatic person, the respondents are being measured with their adult lung volumes using a spirometer. The peak expiratory flow rate is also measures as well as the respondents vital capacity using a vitalograph.
The aim of this practical is to introduce the student to measuring human lung volumes, together with observing the control of respiration. Respiration refers to the overall gaseous exchange between the atmosphere, blood and body cells. In this context, respiration is taken to mean the movement of air into (inspiration) and out of (expiration) of the lungs. More accurately, inspiration and expiration is termed ventilation. An inspiration followed by expiration is called one respiration. The number of respirations per minute gives the respiratory rate (RR). A healthy adult averages a respiratory rate of between 12 to 18 respirations per minute. During this respiratory process, various amounts of air are exchanged between the lungs and the atmosphere. These amounts of air are referred to as lung volumes, which can be recorded using a spirometer, or a peak flow meter which is a measuring instrument used to know the vital capacity of lungs.
Respiration is controlled by the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood. Chemoreceptors within the arterial system detect CO2 levels and this information is relayed via afferent nerves to the central nervous system. High CO2 levels in the blood (hypercapnia) leads to increased respiratory rates (hyperventilation). Low CO2 levels (hypocapnia) leads to respiration rates which are slow and shallow. This is termed hypoventilation.
Spirometric tests and peak expiratory flow are the tests used primarily to assess lung function (Laszlo 1991, p311). There are many other tests involved in assessing lung function, some of which will be undertaken during this practical session, along with consideration of the homeostatic control of respiration.

METHODOLOGY
This study is conducted randomly by examining smokers, non smokers and asthmatics. Vitalograph and spirometer are the instruments used to measure the Forced vital capacity, Forced expiratory volume and Peak Expiratory Flow and Vital capacity of the respondents.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effects on smokers and non smokers:

It was observed that both women who are non smokers have low readings in Forced vital capacity, Forced expiratory volume and Peak Expiratory Flow.

In checking the inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume, normally, the volume of air that comes out is almost similar to what a person exhales.












Table 3 shows the result of each person's Predicted PEF, Vitalograph PEF and Peak flow rate. Rob being the youngest attained the highest measurement of the three key result areas.

When the respondents were checked with regards to the amount of poison that they are carrying from their blood, it was expected and observed that non smokers have lesser findings compared to smokers. Significantly, the presence of poison that is ...Show more

Summary

The respiratory system is composed mainly of the lungs, airways, diaphragm, windpipe, throat, mouth, and nasal passages. The portal of entry of air is in the nasal cavity. The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body…
Author : irunolfsson
Conceptual Model essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Conceptual Model"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Related Essays

Based on the above statement. discuss and critically evaluate the conceptual Business Model framework with reference to structur
As a result, a number of business models that these companies mold their functions around have popped up into being and it is via these frameworks that businesses conduct their operations. A business model can be described as the rationale that an organization utilizes to achieve the objectives that they have set out in the beginning of the business and can be considered to be an essential part of the business strategy that a company uses in order to obtain success (Spencer, 2000).
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
An individual research based report on the rold of business and conceptual modelling within the context of information systems d
These parameters can be static as well as dynamic. The purpose is to make an enterprise model that serves various tasks of information systems quite efficiently. The modeling is not that ambiguous either and involves common human knowledge about information systems and general business modeling.
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
Conceptual Design
Although designers may have difficulty generalizing their heuristics or styles, they usually have no trouble telling stories about previous design situations. If this kind of reasoning can be captured in a computable model of design, the resulting design system may be capable of learning from design experience and maintaining a reasonable competency in design without major reprogramming.
18 pages (4500 words) Essay
Conceptual Framework
The determination of conceptual framework projects' success parameters is necessarily based on the fact that they depend on a set of prior defined variables. Since variables are subject to change over the total duration of the project it's possible that CF projects would still be continued without abatement despite their above average failure rate, in some instances almost amounting to 92%.
10 pages (2500 words) Essay
Rubber Band Model of Communication
All communication models contain some common elements depending on the nature of the communication process. But in all cases there must be a sender, encoding on the part of the sender, a message, a channel through which the message travels, a receiver, decoding on the part of the receiver and, in many situations, a feedback.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Identity-Based Brand Equity Model A Conceptual Framework
As a matter of fact, the majority of these brand equity models are based on an outside-in perspective focusing on the consumer's perception of the brand and the related buying and usage behavior. An integrated perspective including an internal perspective such as employees as an important internal source of brand equity has received little attention.
11 pages (2750 words) Essay
Conceptual Model in Mental Health Nursing
The service provider's could easily point out that much of the mental health problems have been stemming from this clients past sociological environment and his current living conditions as well. Because of the socioeconomic factors, there are adverse areas in his treatment mainly due to the obstacles that Western traditions are presenting.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Conceptual models used in mental health nursing when interviewing client , nurse and doctor
he ‘service users’ crisis and also how one other health care professional perceives the ‘service users’ crisis (this other person could be the ‘service users’ psychiatrist, social worker, occupational therapist etc the choice is yours). More specifically, the basis
3 pages (750 words) Essay
MIS assignment - Making Database Design: Conceptual Model plz..help me
In case of this system’s conceptual model development I have established some assumptions. One of the main complexities in this design that someone can face is about the customer and guest relationship. A customer is a person who is our future or present
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Based on the above statement. discuss and critically evaluate the conceptual Business Model framework with reference to structure, purpose and evaluation
As a result, a number of business models that these companies mold their functions around have popped up into being and it is via these
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Get a custom paper written
by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Rate this paper:
Thank you! Your comment has been sent and will be posted after moderation