Essay sample - randomised clinical trials

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This report provides a researched account of clinical trials. Initially a history of the development of clinical trials from primitive resources and methods to modern day technology intensive trials is chronicled. This is followed by a detailed elaboration on the ethical principles guiding research involving human subjects…


The critical resource of D G Altman's "Practical Statistics for Medical Research" was also available at Google Books. Various search terminologies were used which include "Evolution/History/Review of Clinical Trials", "Ethical issues of clinical trials", "Nazi medical war crimes", "Nuremberg/Helsinki/Belmont" codes. Formulae for the sample size calculations were also accessed from journal publications and some power point presentation slides which have been cited and calculations were performed manually.
Owing to the practical significance of implications of therapeutic interventions for patients, historians have shown an active interest in the charting out of evolution of clinical trials. Histories of clinical trials have been recorded and they have analysed the development of quantification in therapeutic evaluation, the emergence of probabilistic thinking, the application of statistical methods and theory and the sociology, ethics and politics of clinical trials as succinctly summarized by Chalmers (1) in 2001.
The basic concept behind the modern day clinical trial is not a new one. In fact, the earliest recorded reference to something resembling a clinical trial can be found in none other than the Bible. ...
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