Toxicology

College
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Science
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The luxuries and facilities provided by science to the modern world are associated with dangers and hazards to not only human beings but to other species too. Hundreds of laboratories all around the world are busy in exploring and inventing useful things for humankind…

Introduction

At the same time, new methods may be able to point out where chemicals interact to produce disease. But because of human safety numerous animals are used for experiments and testing. Most of them are killed or subject to unacceptable pain and distress. This state of affairs shook the scientists conscience. A movement was started within the scientist community to change the conditions.
During World Wars nations were more involved in producing chemical weapons. These chemical agents were tested on animals in many warring countries. The shocking results of these tests initiated the thought process in scientists to do something for the welfare of animals. The first proposal in this regard using three R's term was presented in 1954 by Charles Hume, founder of the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW). He proposed that UFAW start a scientific study of humane technique in laboratory animal experiments. Christine Stevens, founder of the Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) also contributed financially from U.S.
Soon this movement gathered momentum and spread all over the world. Legislators in Europe and the United States proposed use of laboratory animals under certain regulations. Laws were introduced for restraining use of animals in laboratories.
The three R's stand for replacement, reduction and refinement. ...
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