At the same time, new methods may be able to point out where chemicals interact to produce disease. But because of human safety numerous animals are used for experiments and testing. Most of them are killed or subject to unacceptable pain and distress. This state of affairs shook the scientists conscience. A movement was started within the scientist community to change the conditions.
During World Wars nations were more involved in producing chemical weapons. These chemical agents were tested on animals in many warring countries. The shocking results of these tests initiated the thought process in scientists to do something for the welfare of animals. The first proposal in this regard using three R's term was presented in 1954 by Charles Hume, founder of the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW). He proposed that UFAW start a scientific study of humane technique in laboratory animal experiments. Christine Stevens, founder of the Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) also contributed financially from U.S.
Soon this movement gathered momentum and spread all over the world. Legislators in Europe and the United States proposed use of laboratory animals under certain regulations. Laws were introduced for restraining use of animals in laboratories.
The three R's stand for replacement, reduction and refinement. ...
Various organization were established for safe guarding and monitoring the matters related to animal usage in laboratories. The proposed use of three Rs is described here briefly.
First R Reduction
The reduction proposes some alternative methods for getting similar level of information by using less number of elements. Thus reducing the number of elements used in laboratories. It was observed and proved that poor experimental methods and inadequate information leads to increased usage of animals. It was proposed that measures should be taken to reduce repeated experiments. The data gathered previously should be used.
The revolution in information technology has made it easy to access variety of information available at far off places so that experiments may not be repeated and thus number of animals used in laboratories may be reduced.
Second R Refinement
Refinement means to use such methods that lessen pain and distress and increase animal wellbeing. The pain and distress can be reduced or removed by using various drugs like anesthetics, analgesics etc. It can be materialized by a program of animal care to find and reduce animal sufferings.
It was proposed to evolve ways and methods of assessing animal suffering during various experiments. Accomplishment of refinement depends on the ability of scientists and experts willingness to contribute and coordinate for refining the methods and quality of their experimentation. They should realize that any method that inflicts suffering on animals should be avoided.
It is unfortunate that not much funding is provided to investigate and refine experimental techniques and