The crystalline rocks in which most metals are mined have greater strength and are less likely to settle or collapse. Subsidence can also occur where underground water has dissolved subsurface materials or has been withdrawn by wells. Sinking caused by the caving in of underground mine workings.
Subsidence can result in serious structural damage to buildings, roads, irrigation ditches, underground utilities and pipelines. It can disrupt and alter the flow of surface or underground water. Surface depressions created by subsidence may be filled in, only to sink further because the underground void has not been completely closed. Areas may appear to be free of subsidence for many years and then undergo renewed gradual or even drastic subsidence
Weight, including surface developments such as roads, reservoirs, and buildings, and man-made vibrations from such activities as blasting, heavy truck or train traffic can accelerate the natural processes of subsidence. Fluctuations in the level of underground waters caused by pumping or by injecting fluids into the earth can initiate sinking to fill the empty space previously occupied by water or soluble minerals.
In general, the type and severity of surface subsidence is governed by the amount ground surface and the location of removal or compression, and the geologic conditions of a particular site. ...