This ability explains why very young children acquire the language of the environment that they live in faster than older ones. Following McCarthy (1960), the main stages that follow in early childhood can be summarized as babbling and cooing, pronouncing a variety of syllables (not complete words), imitating sounds and voices of others, and ending up with the pronouncement of a limited number of complete words. Knudtzon (1998) notes that in the second year the child can use two-word sentences. And in the third year he is a keen user of language. The progress continues by interacting with other members of the community, and by joining school, where speaking, reading and writing skills are developed.
In the very early stage the children are mainly under the effect of their parents and siblings. Developments in their cognitive abilities affect them as they grow up. Interacting with the community and going to school may require the child to learn another language different from what he uses at home or in the community. It is the aim of this paper to report on the empirical findings by different researchers on family structure, cognitive abilities and second-language learning as factors that influence the child's language development either positively or negatively. These findings are mainly the result of observing samples of children of different ages over a specific period of time that may extend for months, and of conversations with parents.
2. Family Structure
Families consist usually of two parents, but there are families of one parent only. There may or may not be siblings for the child whose development of language is considered. One parent or both may be working or not, and have different educational...
According to the report findings families consist usually of two parents, but there are families of one parent only. There may or may not be siblings for the child whose development of language is considered. Some families assume an active role in their community, while others just keep to themselves. Family structure then, while taking into account parents work, education and relations to others in the community, surely has an immense effect on the child's language development. This effect can speed up the child's language development, or slow it down, depending on how many hours the children are close to their parents, the type of vocabulary the parents use, and the amount of talk input by them.This essay stresses that the effect of siblings on a younger brother or sister is paramount. From the personal experience of some parents, it has been found that the first child will have slower language development, in terms of how many words that he or she can pronounce, and sentences that can be formed at a certain age; while the second or third will be faster in acquiring more words, and using them at the same age. In these cases, older siblings act as language teachers of a special kind. The same age range, the similar cognitive abilities, and the close ways of pronouncing will make it easier for the older and younger to get on well. In such an interaction, the transfer of skills, from the older to the younger, flows in a natural and smooth way and greatly enhances language development in both.