This paper highlights that the way cities were planned and the direction taken by governmental decisions segregated black Americans from white Americans. The same trends can be seen taking place even after the civil rights movements especially when it comes to living in the suburbs which appear to be dominated by white people with African Americans few and far between. Lipsitz does not say that this division is out in the open, nor does the writer suggest that governments actually enforce this division but there is some blame given to the policy lines adopted by the powers that be. For example, more African American areas in the suburbs had been targeted for demolition during the constructions of highways than homes owned by white Americans and even though it may not really be a conspiracy, the statistics given by Lipsitz are quite startling.
Perhaps the most important question raised by Lipsitz is the idea of enforcement of the law since the laws to ensure fair housing are certainly there on the books even today. However, it is the enforcement of these laws which is lacking and needs help from outside sources to support the case of those African Americans and other races who feel disenfranchised and left out of the housing system. Clearly, the African American / Caucasian American question still remains to be answered and housing is not the only issue which faces American in terms of race relations.