Having realized that most programs address domestic violence post-mortem, early intervention programs need to be focused on. For instance, educational programs that impart information about this issue and campaigns for information dissemination are but a few examples of what can be done even before the early signs of domestic violence are observed. Once signs are seen, next line interventions may include visiting those homes that have a high probability of suffering from domestic violence, and again information campaigns (Wolfe & Jaffe, 1999). Carter et al (1999) further share that the suffering of children exposed to domestic violence has compelled a diverse set of parties who would like to contribute to its resolution These agencies include the "National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, the American Bar Association, the American Medical Association, and the American Psychological Association" (p. 4). These associations have been instrumental at putting forth suggestions, forming committees, organizing research, and other information dissemination vehicles. Tertiary programs on domestic violence are those which are more popular and are firmly established to date (Wolfe & Jaffe, 1999). There has been some evidence on the positive outcomes of domestic violence programs, but these remain inconclusive and hard to implement. For domestic violence prevention to be effectual, there needs to be core shifts in mindset at the person and community levels (Levine, 1981).