Social change is brought about by the continued increase in the number of women who join the labor force in North America, Europe and Oceania starting the age of industrialization (Kornblum 2007). The increase in number of women joining the labor force (Bianchi et al. 2000; Kamo & Cohen 1998; Presser 1994; Shelton 1990, cited in (Omori & Smith 2009) resulted to a decline in the number of hours spent for domestic work (Artis & Pavalko 2003, cited in Omori & Smith 2009). The changing work division is attributed to the declining time that wives spare for household chores (Van der Lippe et al. 2004, cited in Omori & Smith 2009). The routine household works are influenced by cultural values and in line with the “male-breadwinner-and-female-homemaker arrangement” (Treas 2011, para. 6). Cleaning the house is associated with women while working outside to earn a living is the obligation of men (Omori & Smith 2009). However, in African American and Hispanic households, wives usually work outside of the home to earn a living (Omori & Smith 2009). Omori and Smith (2009) reported that women who hold higher or managerial positions, with increased status and income, tend to spend lesser work hours at home. Studies from several countries show that household work arrangements are influenced by values, beliefs and norms in the community (Treas 2011). Through long practice, many household chores were relegated to women. (Van der Lippe et al. 2004, cited in Omori & Smith 2009).
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