Before going to discuss three needs-based theories of motivation, let us get a better understanding of what motivation actually is. Motivation means to inspire people to make them achieve their personal or professional goals. In workplace settings, it is extremely important to motivate people to increase their productivity. Williams (2010) states, “Motivating people to do their best work, consistently, has been an enduring challenge for executives and managers”.
Needs Theory by Douglas McClelland
Douglas McClelland presented this theory of needs. The theorist reveals that there are three needs, which affect or shape the behaviors of people. Those needs include need for power, need for affiliation, and need for achievement.
Power is another human need. In this world, every person has the desire to influence others in order to control their behaviors and actions but the level of desire to control other individual’s behaviors varies from person to person. People, who are motivated by power, want to dominate and shape other people’s views and behaviors.
The need for achievement is another need of a person to achieve all personal and professional goals. People struggle in their lives to achieve their goals and objectives. Achievement of any type of goal makes people happy and confident.
The third need is the need for affiliation. People want to make relationships with other people in order to remain active in the society.