Nevertheless, it becomes clear that the requirement for the formation of government is a certain form of collective ideology or shared values, and the existence of such facilitates the formation of states in the local domain and its nonexistence prevents that same formation in the global arena. It is impossible to build a ‘world state’ if there is ‘no community willing and able to support it’ (Gienow-Hecht & Schumacher 2004, 28). Likewise, for liberal theorists, the international arena is distinguished by “competing codes, rival philosophical traditions, clashing conceptions of morality” (Gienow-Hecht & Schumacher 2004, 28), or “the absence of what might be called an international sense of community” (p. 28). At this point, culture is undoubtedly an essential part of the transformation of the international system. But for a long time, culture did not serve a clear function in international relations theories. Instead of exploring the interaction between cultures and the states of conflict, theories are rooted in another plane underneath culture, that is, the nature of human beings. The subject matter of human nature is characterised by homogeneity, not diversity as in the case of culture (Harrison 2004). In the meantime, for liberal theorists, moral codes for the behaviour of the political sphere of the international arena may be based on a theoretical state of nature; they could be described in relation to individuals’ natural rights (Brown et al. 2004). Hence, according to Wendt (1999).
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