President Obama won with a landslide because of the extreme challenges that the country was facing due to poor Republican Party leadership under former president Bush administration.
Retrospective voting is a type of voting whereby people vote for officials when times are good and against them when times are bad. In this case, parties vying for the various seats compete by emphasizing on competence, the way they reflect on public goals and not by taking particular policy stands. Under retrospective voting, voters do not bother in forming preferences on complex issues, but rather vote depending on their evaluation of the past performance. This means that voters focus only on the most essential issues and it demands very little of the voters. Moreover, politicians have a strong incentive in solving problems that the public wants them solved.
Retrospective voting also gives room for deliberation and experimentation of unpopular policies provided the results are pleasing to the citizens before the next elections. Its main disadvantage is the fact that it is not easy to get rid of bad political leaders unless extremely bad disasters happen. Prospective voting on the other hand refers to the type of voting that involves considering the future wellbeing of the citizens or country at large been in the voters mind. Both these two types of voting are very common in the USA.
There are many complaints about the US bureaucracies though some of the most common complaints include the issue of duplication of duties as some bureaucracies are said to be too large. Some other people complain about them being too expensive to run with other arguing that they are extremely powerful. The issue of speed is also often raised whenever discussing bureaucracies whereby some people claim that they act very slowly since federal employees seem to have so much job security thus have little fear of losing their jobs because of