In a republic, citizens give up their right by electing one person to represent their interests.
Madison argues that a pure democracy cannot cure the mischief of faction which includes: instability, injustice and confusion. He refers to a faction as “a number of citizens comprising majority or minority of whole, united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or interest, adversed to rights of other citizens or to the permanent and aggregate interests of community” (Federalist 10). Human beings have different views and opinions which impact on how the government is run. Those with similar interests form a faction or a political party that criticizes the government on various issues such as taxation. The most common source of faction according to Madison is the various and unequal distribution of property. Legislators do try to regulate the differing interests but since they also have their own interests, they tend to pursue own ends at the expense of common good. The most powerful faction in the end gets its interests secured whether they are just or unjust. Since the cause of faction (human nature) cannot be removed, Madison argues that the government can only control its effects. This can be resolved using the Republican principle of majority wins or takes it all but this can only work if the ruling party is the majority in Congress. In a pure democracy, all citizens assemble to administer government in person hence it is not possible to reconcile the different interests; it has no checks and balances to control obnoxious individuals. Furthermore, it is short lived hence cannot secure personal security or property rights. The Republican government on the other hand, involves representatives hence has checks and balances. A representative comes from a district and represents the interests of constituents from that locality hence it is hard for him to pursue own interests. If he does so,