r, since the enlightenment period, Christianity has almost fully moved away from political ideology, particularly as the religion followed the trends of the Reformation, the Renaissance, and the Enlightenment and embraced separation of state and church. On its part, Judaism is not Universalistic and, although the Jewish people have always been a political people, the Torah has never been seriously pursued as a basis for any political system (Cristi 59). Islam, on the other hand, has always been Universalistic, but it was only in the mid-20th century that political Islam became absolutist with the use of Sharia as the basis for a political system.
Therefore, while Islam and Christianity have been political religions at one time, or another during their history, Judaism has not. In the case of Islam and Christianity, spoken word, visual art, and cultic practices have long been used to visualize God’s rule over man and earth, as well as the focus of a political ideal that has God at its center (Arjomand 32). One of these visualizations is Jerusalem, a City that plays a fundamental role in all three Abrahamic religions in anticipating and venerating a divine presence, every religion in its own ways. Jerusalem particularly plays a critical role for all three’s religious, political imagination, drawing politics into religion and religion into politics. This has been the case over its recent history, especially with the current Israeli-Palestinian stand-off (Arjomand 35). In fact, it can be said that the reason the peace process between the two nations has failed is that the political process is always permeated by religion because the political ideologies in Islam and Judaism differ with regards to Universalism.
With regards to Christianity, the period before the Enlightenment era saw varying nature and degree of the state backing specific creeds and denomination for political reasons, ranging from financial support and persecution of other sects to freedom to