Using the concepts of competition and socialization to anchor your analysis, explain what Waltz means when he writes that a structure “may designate a compensating device that works to produce a uniformity of outcomes despite the variety of inputs.” The implication by Waltz is that structure within the global system always focuses on maintaining their outcomes within constricted margins no matter the inputs to them. This is possible due to socialization factors and competition. Socialization results from differences in societies that arise from informal and impulsive techniques applied in the definition of conduct norms. Consequently, the resulting norms control the group members and this discharges diversity and heartens homogeneity. Conversely, competition defines organization where the outcomes facilitate the selection of behavior, where the least successful conducts leave the global system and the triumphant institutes set the pace imitated by others. Q.3. what are the core assumptions of realism, according to Gilpin? How and WHY do Mearshimer’s assumptions differ?
Guzzini reveals Gilpin’s five assumptions: the global system is stable provided no nations attempt changing it; states challenge the system where the benefits arising outdo the expenses incurred; nations seek to system change through economic, politica, and territorial growth up to the point of equilibrium or excess on marginal costs of continued change compared to marginal benefits; the attainment of equilibrium between benefits and costs resulting from additional change and growth causes faster increment in econiomic cost to sustain the status compared to the financial ability to support th status; and failure to resolve unequity causes system changes settles for a novel equity reflection .
While Gilpin’s assumptions focus on the system systematic, and interaction changes within the global system, Mearshimer’s assumptions focus on factors contributing to the endless competition for security amongst nations. Additionally, Mearsheimer argues that given that powerful states operate anarchic environment, they feat and distrust each other leaving each to worry about the objectives of the other on security. Q4. Compare how Lebow and Waltz explain the nature of order and its relevance to the behavior of states on the world stage