Realists are more of pessimists in international politics. They agree that it is desirable to have a peaceful world. They view no possibilities of escaping the harsh world that is dominated by insecurity, war, and competition. The need to create a peaceful world is a good but not a practical idea. They also have three beliefs that form their basis. They regard states as the main actors in the world of politics. Great powers shape and dominate international politics as well as being the cause of wars. Realists also believe that the external environment influences the behavior of the great powers. In principles, great powers resemble billiard balls whose only variation is in size. Third, realists consider that power calculations dominate the thoughts of states. States always engage in competitions for power. The competition at times demands the need for war and it is at times considered as a good weapon of statecraft. Zero-sum quality brands the competition that makes it intense and unforgiving. States occasionally cooperate, but they have conflicting interests at their roots. The two theories have various common aspects from which they base their arguments. First is the distribution of Power. It refers to the state’s ability to manage outcomes. It is the ability of state B to get state A do something with state A having no options about it. The second one is war. War is a state-directed violence or violence across state borders. The third aspect is the national interest that makes states do what they prefer.
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