Decisions and actions should be geared towards fulfilling obligations and existing laws. Consequently, acts that meet the expectations are considered ethical and those that do not meet the expectations are considered unethical. The theory therefore offers no regards to people’s immediate welfare, may subject actors to conflict of interest, and it is not based on rationale. Utilitarianism, however, focuses on consequences of an action or decision, instead of existing rules and obligation that a person has to others. According to utilitarian theory, negative and positive effects of a decision or actions are considered and net effects used to determine morality. Those acts and decisions that yield net benefits are considered ethical, unlike those that offer net harm. This establishes the basis of determining morality as a difference between deontology and utilitarianism as deontology relies on rules and obligations while utilitarianism relies on effects of an act or a decision. Utilitarianism also remedies deontology’s weakness of lack of rationale and this identifies a difference. Focusing on consequences also establishes consistency and therefore minimizes conflicts. However, the two theories aims at determining morality in actions and decisions (Manias, E., Manias, N., & Monroe, 2013). Analysis of virtue ethics, with the other two theories, also identifies both similarities and differences. The theory distinguishes rights and wrongs, just as deontology and utilitarianism.
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