Banks (2003) noted the difference between irrational or discriminatory and rational racial profiling, where the latter is based on actual criminal activities and reports. He focused on the campaign against racial profiling and noted injustice when minorities experience disadvantages because of racial profiling. The study is useful in showing that racial profiling can lead to discrimination but, in agreement to what he had said, eliminating it is not the solution to discrimination in the law enforcement system.
Engel, R.S., Calnon, J.M., & Bernard. T.J. (2002). Theory and racial profiling: Shortcomings and future directions in research. Justice Quarterly, 9(2), 249-273. Retrieved from http://www.uc.edu/content/dam/uc/ccjr/docs/articles/engel_articles/Theory_Racial_Profiling.pdf
Engel, Calnon, and Bernard (2002) evaluated the research on racial profiling. They noted that, using data from traffic stops and arrests among other data sources, researchers believed that the police generally exhibited discrimination in racial profiling. Engel et al. (2002) asserted though that these studies usually had the flaw of having no guidance from a theoretical framework to support their conclusion that racial discrimination did happen. The study is important in underscoring the gap in literature for studies that can improve the theoretical foundation of racial and criminal profiling.
Glover (2007) studied police opinions on racial profiling through an in-depth interview research method. She noted that police officers downplayed racism in racial profiling through emphasizing the spatial context of their criminal investigations. The article is important in emphasizing the need for gathering more qualitative information about the perceptions and experiences of the police regarding racial profiling and criminal profiling.
Godwin, M. (2002). Reliability, validity, and utility of criminal profiling typologies. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 17(1), 1-18. Retrieved