The court determines is complaint has merit, or is without merit. Second litigation stage is discovery. Discovery entails analyzing the evidence of each party in the dispute. Questions are asked on the supporting documents of both the petitioner and the defendant.
After closure of discover, the third civil litigation stage is the summary judgment motion. The summary judgment motion illustrates arguments of the defendant that the plaintiff’s evidence does not support the claim. In the summary judgment process, the court considers evidence of the plaintiff, and the law. If the plaintiff succeeds in the summary judgment motion, the trial stage is initiated. But just before the trial, the parties are sent to arbitration hearing, where the mediator pushes for agreement of the parties. This is referred to as settlement conference. If settlement is not achieved, the court authorizes full trial of the case (Labunski 219).
Grand jury entails legal institution that is enabled to perform official proceedings of investigating or analyzing potential criminal activities; and to study if criminal charges will be brought. The grand jury can initiate production of documents, and also sworn witness testimony, before it. The grand jury and the courts are separate and independent institutions. Grand juries are responsible for performing investigatory and also accusatory duties. Investigatory responsibilities of the grand jury entail obtaining and analyzing evidence, and also hearing sworn witnesses testimonies that are before it. The accusatory function of the grand jury determines if one or more individuals committed offences within appropriate district court jurisdiction. Grand jury in the United States comprises between 16 and 23 citizens. The grand jury has more jurors than the trial jury (Levy 76).
During early decades in the United States of America, grand juries performed significant roles