On the other hand when conclusions about societies, groups and nations are made through evidences gathered from individuals then it gives rise to individualistic fallacy (Frankfort-Nachmias, 2008).
6. Write three researchable hypotheses, identifying their independent, dependent, and control variables. Clearly indicate the expected change in the magnitude and direction of the dependent and independent variables.
A relationship that can be defined by variables in addition to those mentioned in the hypothesis is called a spurious relationship. Control variables are used to experiment that an observed relationship between dependent and independent variables is actually influenced by the independent variable mentioned in hypothesis (Frankfort-Nachmias, 2008).
Co-variation is defined as those characteristics which are common in the two related variables, for instance, individuals with higher income have better lifestyle. This helps the social scientists to conduct research and determine whether the characteristics of one research variable are related to the characteristics of other variables (Frankfort-Nachmias, 2008).
9. when we speak of direction in social science research, what do we mean? What is the difference between positive and negative relations? What is meant by magnitude and by zero versus perfect relations?
When we speak about a particular direction in social science research we refer to the variable relationships which are either negative or positive. A positive relationship defines that when the value of one variable increases then other values also increase. Contrary to this a negative relationship explains that if value of one variable increases then all other values decrease. Magnitude defines the positive or negative co-variation of variables. The lowest magnitude is called zero relation and highest magnitude is known as perfect relation (Frankfort-Nachmias, 2008).