? Xenophon gives an account of Cyrus’s education in his childhood and boyhood first at the court of his father who is the King of Persians and secondly at the court of his father, the king of the Medes. With respect to the Persian constitution, the state educates the children and they learn the art of justice, moderation, and hunting as a way of preparing them for their future engagement in war. The number of citizens is restricted to 120,000 men who are referred to as “those equal in honor” and comprise those whose parents could give formal education.
Any of the citizens (isotimoi) is allowed to hold office but the stress of the Persian constitution is strict law and regulation. If anyone does not fulfill any of the required steps in preparation to becoming a full citizen, then they are disqualified from the citizens’ body. Similarly, decisions concerning justice and rule of law are rigorously upheld. During one of his school days, Cyrus is whipped by his teachers because in a trial case brought before him, he decides in line with common sense instead of the written law.
When he is twelve years of age, Cyrus leaves Persia for Medes where he lives at the court of his grandfather, the Medes’ king. Contrary to Persia, life at the court of Medes is excessive. At one time, Cyrus reproves his grandfather for drunkenness and lack of reasonableness. When Cyrus has to decide between remaining at the Medish court or going back to Persia, his mother compares the Medish and the Persian courts in strong terms. The mother describes the two courts as not being in agreement about what justice entails. She describes the Medish kingdom as tyrannical whereas the Persian kingdom is founded on equality which they believe constitutes justice.
She describes the king of Persia as very observant on the law rather than his will. She warns Cyrus to be careful lest he is beaten alive when he returns home (Persia) on the ground of the tyrannical rather than kingship