First of all, the crude form of IS (say, the Islamic State) was established in the year 1999, known as Jama’at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad. This group was formed in Jordan, under the leadership of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Axel Hunsicker stated that, “Zarqavi and his group helped finance, recruit, transport, and train Sunni Islamic extremists for the Iraqi resistance” (420). Besides, this organization played an important role in creating internal problems in the Middle Eastern context during the time of insurgency in Iraq. One can see that the presence of foreign fighters in this group proves its effectiveness, beyond its decentralized leadership. In the year 2004, this group decided to extend its influence by affiliating itself to international terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda. For instance, the group’s name underwent transformation as Tanẓim Qaʻidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn. One can see that the insurgency in Iraq was not over during 2000s. So, the primary aim of this group was to take an active role in the internal politics of Iraq by taking arms against the coalition forces.
Again in the year 2006, this group changed its name into Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). To be specific, this transformation is important because the Mujahedeen leadership decided to co-ordinate different insurgent groups under a single leadership. Besides, the core leadership was in decentralized form to overcome unexpected deaths of important leaders.