Chapter 5 provides disconnect between operational and symbolic labels. Chapter 6 discusses the conservatism self-identification theories and liberal preferences. In addition to that, the role of religion to steer political conservatism that shapes self-identification. Chapter 7 mentions the link between American citizenry and political elite that have conflicts discussed by the policymakers and the media. The final chapter summarizes the entire book by discussing the proposition of operational-symbolic conflict to assist the reader comprehend American policy dynamics. The author offers solutions that can help conceptualize democratic theory in future of American politics.
Liberals largely support simple accounts of ideological positions that support the expansion of government power to enable it provides equal opportunity and remediate social injustice. Conservatives largely support economic freedom and cultural ethnic patterns of social order. The political elite in America have different ideologies to have polarity as well as individual citizen in the nation. Most of the citizens do not concern themselves with current political affairs and that leads to disconnect in the nature of American mass ideology.
Symbolic ideology represents how citizens perceive themselves liberal, conservative, or moderate. Operational ideology deals with concrete decisions on the perceptions and expectations of citizens to the government of the day. Conservative policy makers believe in conservatism policies.
Ellis and Stimson (2) state that language of ideology is litigious in the social and political strategy. Daily American politics centers on Liberalism and Conservatism. The conflict between liberal and conservatism sentiments is on issues pertaining policy, symbols, and cultural issues. The political elite in the country align themselves with either side due to daily issues that become a