The first chapter of the book tries to give both the contemporary and historical effects of media. The audience has a variety of channels to choose from, and the different programmes are interpreted differently by different audiences on the channel. It gives the comparison of the number of channels shown in or TVs. In 1970s there were only 6 channels shown on TV on most of the homestead channels and all the channels were in UHF spectrum which is of inferior quality, by 2010 the number of channels had increased drastically and the author states that more than 90% of the US homestead had access to either the cable or satellite television which had more than 130 channels. The cable television has brought in most channels to the viewers.
The chapter also shows the study of media effects on American public opinion. It gives a clear review of the debate on high persuasive effect of media versus minimal effects. The emergence of cable television is revolutionary and through this development in technology has brought television to areas where broadcast. Therefore, the more channels translated to more choices and the expansion of opportunity afforded by satellite and cable television not only transformed the face of television entertainment and news but also had great insinuation for the reach and effect of news media. The authors also shows that before the rise of cable and satellite television viewers could only watch a few programs only in a few days and at fixed intervals and had little in the way of televised entertainment option during the newscast. On the contrary, the rise of cable television provides viewers with a variety of choices, the content is broad and more varied and increasingly more specialized as the programs of television seek audience niche. The other side of the wide and varied number of channels is that they have become