A federal state can be defined as one that involves the sharing of sovereignty across a number of levels of government whereas a unitary state, on the other hand, involves the concentration of sovereignty at the level of a single central government. These states may be centralized, decentralized, or regionalized. Federalism may be found in unitary states such as France and Italy
The unitary form of government was introduced after the French revolution while federal governance was first experimented in US after the American Revolution. This was followed by the confederate form of government.
Unitary form of government constituted nationalization which meant that the people of those nations were to be kept united under one common flag and one political government. There was also the involvement of a centralized government to ensure that there was order in the states. On the other hand the federal state is one formed by the association of various states which are usually formed for a common purpose.
This will ensures that the member states maintain a huge measure of autonomy and independence. This implies therefore, both unitary and federal systems differ on the basis of autonomy. There is no much autonomy in unitary form of governance as compared to the federal form of governance, where there is considerable intensity of autonomy.
However, the unitary and federal form of governments exists in varying forms and therefore they revolve in the extent of central regulation of affairs. The unitary form of government has sub-national governments that exist having strict functions of welfare governance regulated by the center. Both forms of governance involve a field over which they take shifts and since both are not wholly separated, a few states are regarded as being between complete federalism and complete unitary form of governance.
The two forms of