It explains that an act is ethical if it gives beneficial gains rather than pain. Employees’ acts are therefore ethical if it gives high benefit outcomes (Arnold, et al., 2013, p.89)
This theory is based upon the social virtues in outlining code of conducts that regulates wrong or right and its major focus is on intrinsic worthiness that a given society share such as honesty, integrity etc.
In this theory, wrong and right are judged based on the set regulations that have been formulated (Arnold, et al., 2013, p.89). The employees are therefore bound ethically to abide by the organizational/ professional rules in place.
A conflict of misunderstanding would erupt if the virtues and moral baselines differ between a leader who has been socialized into different moral standards and those of the employees owing to cultural differences. The Virtual theory is based on virtues but these virtues may differ and a leader may have different moral values and virtues different from the employees.
The three theories of ethics significantly differ in their baseline account for ethics but they join together in conceptualizing the communal/collective formulation of ethical standards; it is a group duty and not individual. The three differ in tracing the source of ethical