Modern societies also exhibit social structural differentiation with distinct definitions of political and national institutions. Modern societies also have a differentiated political structure and secularized political culture. Many modern societies are in a position to advance the political system of a society (Crain 67). Promoters of the modernization theory highlight that modernization occurs in phases. The five phases include the existence of a traditional society, the emergence of preconditions for takeoff, the real takeoff process, the drive to maturity, and finally the emergence of a high content consumption society.
Modernization theorists reveal that the process began in Europe and America. The modernization process is highly transformative. The modernization process has been moving to the traditional societies in other continents. However, the completion of the process will take a long time. Other theories such as the theory of dependency and the theory of world systems do not explain the existence of income gaps effectively. For example, the theory of dependency cannot explain why countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China have the highest level of economic growth, yet they do not appear in the list of the developed countries (He 34). In addition, the theory of globalization does not explain why there is increasing income inequality in both developed and developing