It is a tool that is normally used for the creation of policy items and it is through it that governments have been able to develop desired results. The use of this tool involves a process where potential problems with policies are identified by policymakers and attempts are made to ensure that the latter are corrected in such a way that they become more effective. This paper will attempt to show institutional reform as a tool for the institution of policy changes and this will be according to the theory developed by Peter John. Each stage of policy change or development will be followed by an evaluation of examples of the use of this tool in the contemporary world.
One of the most significant aspects of the institutional reform is that it helps in the identification of needs that allow for the development of necessary changes to make policies more effective. Identifying needs is a process where policymakers conduct research in society and this is conducted both through research on the field as well as the study of different literature concerning problems or needs that are required in society (Heckathorn and Maser, 1990). The ability to conduct such research is essential in making sure that there is a political priority concerning the best way to handle matters so that they do not end up being too difficult to handle. Identifying needs helps in ensuring whether there has been similar research in the areas that need adjustments to policies and this helps in making it possible for policymakers not to develop policies that might in the end turn out to be irrelevant. Through the use of effective research methods, policymakers have an easier time following up on previous research in the area of concern and, through the identification of both positive and negative outcomes, make changes to policy decisions that have a greater possibility of being more effective.
When finding out the needs that necessitate policy changes,