The main Palestine groups employing terrorism as a means of achieving their goals and strategic objectives in the region currently include Hamas, most notably its military wing – Al-Qassam Brigades – and Fatah’s Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades. The Israeli Government counter-terrorist organizational framework includes the Israeli Police, ISA, Mossad and IDF (Ganor 2005). International human rights organizations, like Amnesty International for instance, blame IDF for a number of war crimes and violations of human rights during their offensives in the Gaza Strip (Amnesty International, 2015).
Inasmuch as the primary method of attacks employed by Hamas and other Palestinian militant groups is rocket-firing mainly into Israel, the range of targets is vast, including civilians, army and police personnel as well as infrastructure and build environment. According to IDF, civilian and public buildings, including schools and hospitals are used by Hamas as command centers and/or weapons depots (Amnesty International, 2015). Being aimed at the achievement of the main political goals, these attacks are commonly associated with the Palestinian grievances and discontent (see Oberschall, 2004).
A significant attempt at conflict resolution, besides the peace treaties between Israel and Egypt in 1979, and Israel and Jordan in1994, was the so-called Oslo Accord (Gelvin, 2014). Despite the transfer of control over the Gaza Strip and West Bank to autonomous Palestinian rule, thus being considered an unprecedented breakthrough, the Oslo Accord failed to achieve both the fundamental goal of permanently appeasing the region and creating an independent Palestinian state (Selby, 2003). As Oberschall (2004) points out, denying political opportunity, safe bases for terrorist operations, and alleviation of poverty and socio-economic inequities would