Generally, racism may be considered as the social practice that apportions merits or attributes values to people who belong to groups that have been racially categorized exclusively based on the race they belong to (Mann and Zatz 3). There are about three different aspects associated with racism including personal prejudice: institutional racism that involves policies that operate to create differences between various races and ideological racism where biology and culture are the justification for the superior position of a dominant culture. One of the characteristics associated with institutionalized racism is petit apartheid which is a concept that entails hidden or informal interactions between police and minorities in a daily basis including various policing activities that could or could not lead to apprehension and subsequent entrance into the justice system. Petit apartheid has continued to be addressed recently hypothetically and also based on practices which could be included in its range of definition with the emphasis of petit apartheid appearing to be attitudinal aspects that have an effect on policing and other choices in the system including beliefs and actions that are culturally biased such as rough treatment, insults and quality of judicial instructions along with other discretionary actions that may exist within the system.
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